UMR168 – Laboratoire Physico-Chimie Curie

Publications de l’UMR 168

Année de publication : 2016

Thomas Risler, Aurélien Peilloux, Jacques Prost (2016 Jan 2)

Homeostatic Fluctuations of a Tissue Surface.

Physical review letters : 258104 : DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.258104 En savoir plus
Résumé

We study the surface fluctuations of a tissue with a dynamics dictated by cell-rearrangement, cell-division, and cell-death processes. Surface fluctuations are calculated in the homeostatic state, where cell division and cell death equilibrate on average. The obtained fluctuation spectrum can be mapped onto several other spectra such as those characterizing incompressible fluids, compressible Maxwell elastomers, or permeable membranes in appropriate asymptotic regimes. Since cell division and cell death are out-of-equilibrium processes, detailed balance is broken, but a generalized fluctuation-response relation is satisfied in terms of appropriate observables. Our work is a first step toward the description of the out-of-equilibrium fluctuations of the surface of a thick epithelium and its dynamical response to external perturbations.

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Année de publication : 2015

Quentin Vagne, Matthew S Turner, Pierre Sens (2015 Dec 15)

Sensing Size through Clustering in Non-Equilibrium Membranes and the Control of Membrane-Bound Enzymatic Reactions.

PloS one : e0143470 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0143470 En savoir plus
Résumé

The formation of dynamical clusters of proteins is ubiquitous in cellular membranes and is in part regulated by the recycling of membrane components. We show, using stochastic simulations and analytic modeling, that the out-of-equilibrium cluster size distribution of membrane components undergoing continuous recycling is strongly influenced by lateral confinement. This result has significant implications for the clustering of plasma membrane proteins whose mobility is hindered by cytoskeletal « corrals » and for protein clustering in cellular organelles of limited size that generically support material fluxes. We show how the confinement size can be sensed through its effect on the size distribution of clusters of membrane heterogeneities and propose that this could be regulated to control the efficiency of membrane-bound reactions. To illustrate this, we study a chain of enzymatic reactions sensitive to membrane protein clustering. The reaction efficiency is found to be a non-monotonic function of the system size, and can be optimal for sizes comparable to those of cellular organelles.

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Année de publication : 2016

Alice Berthaud, François Quemeneur, Maxime Deforet, Patricia Bassereau, Françoise Brochard-Wyart, Stéphanie Mangenot (2015 Dec 15)

Spreading of porous vesicles subjected to osmotic shocks: the role of aquaporins.

Soft matter : 12 : 1601-1609 : DOI : 10.1039/c5sm01654a En savoir plus
Résumé

Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) is a transmembrane protein specific to the eye lens, Involved as a water carrier across the lipid membranes. During maturation eye lens, AQP0s are truncated by proteolytic cleavage. We Investigate this work in the capability of truncated AQP0 to conduite water across membranes. We Developed a method to Accurately determine water permeability across lipid membranes and proteins across from the deflation under osmotic pressure of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) Deposited adhesive substrate on year. Using reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM), we measure the spreading area of ​​GUVs During deswelling. We interpret thesis results using a model based on hydrodynamic, binder diffusion Reviews towards the touch area, and Helfrich’s law for the membrane voltage, qui allows us to spread recounts the area to the internal vesicle volume. We first study the specific adhesion of vesicles coated with biotin was spreading streptavidin substrate. Then we determine the permeability of a single functional AQP0 and Demonstrate That truncated AQP0 is no more a water channel.

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Année de publication : 2015

Guevorkian K, Manzi J, Pontani LL, Brochard-Wyart F, Sykes C (2015 Dec 15)

Mechanics of Biomimetic Liposomes Encapsulating an Actin Shell

Biophysical Journal : 109 : 2471-9 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bpj.2015.10.050 En savoir plus
Résumé

Cell-shape changes are insured by a thin, dynamic, cortical layer of cytoskeleton underneath the plasma membrane. How this thin cortical structure impacts the mechanical properties of the whole cell is not fully understood. Here, we study the mechanics of liposomes or giant unilamellar vesicles, when a biomimetic actin cortex is grown at the inner layer of the lipid membrane via actin-nucleation-promoting factors. Using a hydrodynamic tube-pulling technique, we show that tube dynamics is clearly affected by the presence of an actin shell anchored to the lipid bilayer. The same force pulls much shorter tubes in the presence of the actin shell compared to bare membranes. However, in both cases, we observe that the dynamics of tube extrusion has two distinct features characteristic of viscoelastic materials: rapid elastic elongation, followed by a slower elongation phase at a constant rate. We interpret the initial elastic regime by an increase of membrane tension due to the loss of lipids into the tube. Tube length is considerably shorter for cortex liposomes at comparable pulling forces, resulting in a higher spring constant. The presence of the actin shell seems to restrict lipid mobility, as is observed in the corral effect in cells. The viscous regime for bare liposomes corresponds to a leakout of the internal liquid at constant membrane tension. The presence of the actin shell leads to a larger friction coefficient. As the tube is pulled from a patchy surface, membrane tension increases locally, leading to a Marangoni flow of lipids. As a conclusion, the presence of an actin shell is revealed by its action that alters membrane mechanics.

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Simon Garcia, Edouard Hannezo, Jens Elgeti, Jean-François Joanny, Pascal Silberzan, Nir S Gov (2015 Dec 1)

Physics of active jamming during collective cellular motion in a monolayer.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America : 15314-9 : DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1510973112 En savoir plus
Résumé

Although collective cell motion plays an important role, for example during wound healing, embryogenesis, or cancer progression, the fundamental rules governing this motion are still not well understood, in particular at high cell density. We study here the motion of human bronchial epithelial cells within a monolayer, over long times. We observe that, as the monolayer ages, the cells slow down monotonously, while the velocity correlation length first increases as the cells slow down but eventually decreases at the slowest motions. By comparing experiments, analytic model, and detailed particle-based simulations, we shed light on this biological amorphous solidification process, demonstrating that the observed dynamics can be explained as a consequence of the combined maturation and strengthening of cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions. Surprisingly, the increase of cell surface density due to proliferation is only secondary in this process. This analysis is confirmed with two other cell types. The very general relations between the mean cell velocity and velocity correlation lengths, which apply for aggregates of self-propelled particles, as well as motile cells, can possibly be used to discriminate between various parameter changes in vivo, from noninvasive microscopy data.

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Sophie Marbach, Amélie Luise Godeau, Daniel Riveline, Jean-François Joanny, Jacques Prost (2015 Nov 22)

Theoretical study of actin layers attachment and separation.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter : 122 : DOI : 10.1140/epje/i2015-15122-4 En savoir plus
Résumé

We use the theory of active gels to study theoretically the merging and separation of two actin dense layers akin to cortical layers of animal cells. The layers bind at a distance equal to twice the thickness of a free layer, thus forming a single dense layer, similar in this sense to a lamellipodium. When that unique layer is stretched apart, it is resilient to break apart up to a critical length larger than twice the thickness of a free layer. We show that this behavior can result from the high contractile properties of the actomyosin gel due to the activity of myosin molecular motors. Furthermore, we establish that the stability of the stretched single layer is highly dependent on the properties of the gel. Indeed, the nematic order of the actin filaments along the polymerizing membranes is a destabilizing factor.

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Sham Tlili, Cyprien Gay, François Graner, Philippe Marcq, François Molino, Pierre Saramito (2015 Nov 6)

Erratum to: Colloquium: Mechanical formalisms for tissue dynamics.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter : 115 : DOI : 10.1140/epje/i2015-15115-3 En savoir plus
Résumé

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Mijo Simunovic, Gregory A Voth, Andrew Callan-Jones, Patricia Bassereau (2015 Nov 2)

When Physics Takes Over: BAR Proteins and Membrane Curvature.

Trends in cell biology : 780-92 : DOI : 10.1016/j.tcb.2015.09.005 En savoir plus
Résumé

Cell membranes Become highly curved During membrane trafficking, cytokinesis, infection, immune response, or cell motion. Bin / Amphiphysin / Rvs (BAR) domain proteins Intrinsically With Their curved shape anisotropy and are Involved in Many of These processes, aim with a wide spectrum of modes of action. In vitro experiments and computer simulations multiscale-have Contributed in Identifying a minimal set of physical parameters derived derived, namely protein density on the membrane, membrane voltage and membrane shape, That control how bound BAR domain proteins behave on the membrane. In this review, we summarize the multifaceted BAR coupling of proteins to membrane mechanics and offers a single-phase diagram That Recapitulates the effects of These parameters.

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Ahmed WW, Fodor É, Betz T (2015 Nov 1)

Active cell mechanics: measurement and theory

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta : 1853 : 3083-94 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.05.022 En savoir plus
Résumé

Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

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Cáceres R, Abou-Ghali M, Plastino J (2015 Nov 1)

Reconstituting the actin cytoskeleton at or near surfaces in vitro

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta : 1853 : 3006-14 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.07.021 En savoir plus
Résumé

Actin filament dynamics have been studied for decades in pure protein solutions or in cell extracts, but a breakthrough in the field occurred at the turn of the century when it became possible to reconstitute networks of actin filaments, growing in a controlled but physiological manner on surfaces, mimicking the actin assembly that occurs at the plasma membrane during cell protrusion and cell shape changes. The story begins with the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, the study of which led to the reconstitution of cellular actin polymerization on a variety of supports including plastic beads. These studies made possible the development of liposome-type substrates for filament assembly and micropatterning of actin polymerization nucleation. Based on the accumulated expertise of the last 15 years, many exciting approaches are being developed, including the addition of myosin to biomimetic actin networks to study the interplay between actin structure and contractility. The field is now poised to make artificial cells with a physiological and dynamic actin cytoskeleton, and subsequently to put these cells together to make in vitro tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

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Grégory Beaune, Françoise M Winnik, Françoise Brochard-Wyart (2015 Oct 29)

Formation of Tethers from Spreading Cellular Aggregates.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids : 12984-92 : DOI : 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b02785 En savoir plus
Résumé

Membrane tubes are commonly extruded from cells and vesicles when a point-like force is applied on the membrane. We report here the unexpected formation of membrane tubes from lymph node cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell aggregates in the absence of external applied forces. The spreading of LNCaP aggregates deposited on adhesive glass substrates coated with fibronectin is very limited because cell-cell adhesion is stronger than cell-substrate adhesion. Some cells on the aggregate periphery are very motile and try to escape from the aggregate, leading to the formation of membrane tubes. Tethered networks and exchange of cargos between cells were observed as well. Growth of the tubes is followed by either tube retraction or tube rupture. Hence, even very cohesive cells are successful in escaping aggregates, which may lead to epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. We interpret the dynamics of formation and retraction of tubes in the framework of membrane mechanics.

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Reza M Mohamadi, Zuzana Svobodova, Zuzana Bilkova, Markus Otto, Myriam Taverna, Stephanie Descroix, Jean-Louis Viovy (2015 Oct 22)

An integrated microfluidic chip for immunocapture, preconcentration and separation of β-amyloid peptides.

Biomicrofluidics : 054117 : DOI : 10.1063/1.4931394 En savoir plus
Résumé

We present an integrated microfluidic chip for detection of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Aβ peptides are major biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in its early stages. This microfluidic device consists of three main parts: (1) An immunocapture microcolumn based on self-assembled magnetic beads coated with antibodies specific to Aβ peptides, (2) a nano-porous membrane made of photopolymerized hydrogel for preconcentration, and (3) a microchip electrophoresis (MCE) channel with fluorescent detection. Sub-milliliter sample volume is either mixed off-chip with antibody coated magnetic beads and injected into the device or is injected into an already self-assembled column of magnetic beads in the microchannel. The captured peptides on the beads are then electrokinetically eluted and re-concentrated onto the nano-membrane in a few nano-liters. By integrating the nano-membrane, total assay time was reduced and also off-chip re-concentration or buffer exchange steps were not needed. Finally, the concentrated peptides in the chip are separated by electrophoresis in a polymer-based matrix. The device was applied to the capture and MCE analysis of differently truncated peptides Aβ (1-37, 1-39, 1-40, and 1-42) and was able to detect as low as 25 ng of synthetic Aβ peptides spiked in undiluted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The device was also tested with CSF samples from healthy donors. CSF samples were fluorescently labelled and pre-mixed with the magnetic beads and injected into the device. The results indicated that Aβ1-40, an important biomarker for distinguishing patients with frontotemporal lobe dementia from controls and AD patients, was detectable. Although the sensitivity of this device is not yet enough to detect all Aβ subtypes in CSF, this is the first report on an integrated or semi-integrated device for capturing and analyzing of differently truncated Aβ peptides. The method is less demanding and faster than the conventional Western blotting method currently used for research.

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A Y Grosberg, J-F Joanny (2015 Oct 15)

Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of mixtures of particles in contact with different thermostats.

Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics : 032118 : DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032118 En savoir plus
Résumé

We introduce a novel type of locally driven systems made of two types of particles (or a polymer with two types of monomers) subject to a chaotic drive with approximately white noise spectrum, but different intensity; in other words, particles of different types are in contact with thermostats at different temperatures. We present complete systematic statistical mechanics treatment starting from first principles. Although we consider only corrections to the dilute limit due to pairwise collisions between particles, meaning we study a nonequilibrium analog of the second virial approximation, we find that the system exhibits a surprisingly rich behavior. In particular, pair correlation function of particles has an unusual quasi-Boltzmann structure governed by an effective temperature distinct from that of any of the two thermostats. We also show that at sufficiently strong drive the uniformly mixed system becomes unstable with respect to steady states consisting of phases enriched with different types of particles. In the second virial approximation, we define nonequilibrium « chemical potentials » whose gradients govern diffusion fluxes and a nonequilibrium « osmotic pressure, » which governs the mechanical stability of the interface.

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Thibaut J Lagny, Patricia Bassereau (2015 Oct 15)

Bioinspired membrane-based systems for a physical approach of cell organization and dynamics: usefulness and limitations.

Interface focus : 20150038 : DOI : 10.1098/rsfs.2015.0038 En savoir plus
Résumé

Being at the Periphery of Each cell compartment and enclosing the Entire cell while interacting with a large part of cell components, cell membranes Participate in MOST of the cell’s vital functions. Biologists-have for a long time Worked on deciphering how membranes are Organized, How They contribuer to trafficking, motility, cytokinesis, cell-cell communication, transport information, etc., using top-down Approaches and always more advanced techniques. In contrast, physicists-have Developed bottom-up Approaches and minimal model membrane systems of growing complexity in order to build up general models That explain how cell membranes work and How They interact with proteins, eg the cytoskeleton. We review the different model membrane systems That ares currently available, and How They can help deciphering cell functioning, goal aussi Their list limitations. Model membrane systems are aussi used in synthetic biology and can-have potential applications beyond basic research. We can the Chat the synergy entre le development of complex membrane systems in vitro in a biological context and for technological applications. Questions That Could aussi be Discussed are: what can we still do with synthetic systems, where do we stop building up and qui are the alternative solutions?

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Nicolas Christophorou, Thomas Rubin, Isabelle Bonnet, Tristan Piolot, Marion Arnaud, Jean-René Huynh (2015 Oct 13)

Microtubule-driven nuclear rotations promote meiotic chromosome dynamics.

Nature cell biology : 1388-400 : DOI : 10.1038/ncb3249 En savoir plus
Résumé

At the onset of meiosis, each chromosome needs to find its homologue and pair to ensure proper segregation. In Drosophila, pairing occurs during the mitotic cycles preceding meiosis. Here we show that germ cell nuclei undergo marked movements during this developmental window. We demonstrate that microtubules and Dynein are driving nuclear rotations and are required for centromere pairing and clustering. We further found that Klaroid (SUN) and Klarsicht (KASH) co-localize with centromeres at the nuclear envelope and are required for proper chromosome motions and pairing. We identified Mud (NuMA in vertebrates) as co-localizing with centromeres, Klarsicht and Klaroid. Mud is also required to maintain the integrity of the nuclear envelope and for the correct assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Our findings reveal a mechanism for chromosome pairing in Drosophila, and indicate that microtubules, centrosomes and associated proteins play a crucial role in the dynamic organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus.

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