UMR168 – Laboratoire Physico-Chimie Curie

Publications de l’UMR 168

Année de publication : 2018

Broders-Bondon Florence, Nguyen Ho-Bouldoires Thanh, Fernandez-Sanchez Maria Elena-Farge Emmanuel (2018 May 17)

Mechanotransduction in tumor progression: The dark side of the force.

Journal of Cell Biology : 217(5):1571-1587 : DOI : 10.1083/jcb.201701039 En savoir plus
Résumé

Cancer has been characterized as a genetic disease, associated with mutations that cause pathological alterations of the cell cycle, adhesion, or invasive motility. Recently, the importance of the anomalous mechanical properties of tumor tissues, which activate tumorigenic biochemical pathways, has become apparent. This mechanical induction in tumors appears to consist of the destabilization of adult tissue homeostasis as a result of the reactivation of embryonic developmental mechanosensitive pathways in response to pathological mechanical strains. These strains occur in many forms, for example, hypervascularization in late tumors leads to high static hydrodynamic pressure that can promote malignant progression through hypoxia or anomalous interstitial liquid and blood flow. The high stiffness of tumors directly induces the mechanical activation of biochemical pathways enhancing the cell cycle, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, and cell motility. Furthermore, increases in solid-stress pressure associated with cell hyperproliferation activate tumorigenic pathways in the healthy epithelial cells compressed by the neighboring tumor. The underlying molecular mechanisms of the translation of a mechanical signal into a tumor inducing biochemical signal are based on mechanically induced protein conformational changes that activate classical tumorigenic signaling pathways. Understanding these mechanisms will be important for the development of innovative treatments to target such mechanical anomalies in cancer.

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Jérémie Barral, Frank Jülicher, Pascal Martin (2018 Feb 6)

Friction from Transduction Channels’ Gating Affects Spontaneous Hair-Bundle Oscillations.

Biophysical journal : 425-436 : DOI : S0006-3495(17)31251-1 En savoir plus
Résumé

Hair cells of the inner ear can power spontaneous oscillations of their mechanosensory hair bundle, resulting in amplification of weak inputs near the characteristic frequency of oscillation. Recently, dynamic force measurements have revealed that delayed gating of the mechanosensitive ion channels responsible for mechanoelectrical transduction produces a friction force on the hair bundle. The significance of this intrinsic source of dissipation for the dynamical process underlying active hair-bundle motility has remained elusive. The aim of this work is to determine the role of friction in spontaneous hair-bundle oscillations. To this end, we characterized key oscillation properties over a large ensemble of individual hair cells and measured how viscosity of the endolymph that bathes the hair bundles affects these properties. We found that hair-bundle movements were too slow to be impeded by viscous drag only. Moreover, the oscillation frequency was only marginally affected by increasing endolymph viscosity by up to 30-fold. Stochastic simulations could capture the observed behaviors by adding a contribution to friction that was 3-8-fold larger than viscous drag. The extra friction could be attributed to delayed changes in tip-link tension as the result of the finite activation kinetics of the transduction channels. We exploited our analysis of hair-bundle dynamics to infer the channel activation time, which was ∼1 ms. This timescale was two orders-of-magnitude shorter than the oscillation period. However, because the channel activation time was significantly longer than the timescale of mechanical relaxation of the hair bundle, channel kinetics affected hair-bundle dynamics. Our results suggest that friction from channel gating affects the waveform of oscillation and that the channel activation time can tune the characteristic frequency of the hair cell. We conclude that the kinetics of transduction channels’ gating plays a fundamental role in the dynamic process that shapes spontaneous hair-bundle oscillations.

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Sherwood DR, Plastino J (2018 Jan 1)

Invading, leading and navigating cells in Caenorhabditis elegans: insights into cell movement in vivo

Genetics : 208 : 53-78 : DOI : 10.1534/genetics.117.300082 En savoir plus
Résumé

Highly regulated cell migration events are crucial during animal tissue formation and the trafficking of cells to sites of infection and injury. Misregulation of cell movement underlies numerous human diseases, including cancer. Although originally studied primarily in two-dimensional in vitro assays, most cell migrations in vivo occur in complex three-dimensional tissue environments that are difficult to recapitulate in cell culture or ex vivo Further, it is now known that cells can mobilize a diverse repertoire of migration modes and subcellular structures to move through and around tissues. This review provides an overview of three distinct cellular movement events in Caenorhabditis eleganscell invasion through basement membrane, leader cell migration during organ formation, and individual cell migration around tissues-which together illustrate powerful experimental models of diverse modes of movement in vivo We discuss new insights into migration that are emerging from these in vivo studies and important future directions toward understanding the remarkable and assorted ways that cells move in animals.

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Année de publication : 2017

Francesco Gianoli, Thomas Risler, Andrei S. Kozlov (2017 Dec 19)

Lipid bilayer mediates ion-channel cooperativity in a model of hair-cell mechanotransduction

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America : 114 : E11010-E11019 : DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1713135114 En savoir plus
Résumé

Mechanoelectrical transduction in the inner ear is a biophysical process underlying the senses of hearing and balance. The key players involved in this process are mechanosensitive ion channels. They are located in the stereocilia of hair cells and opened by the tension in specialized molecular springs, the tip links, connecting adjacent stereocilia. When channels open, the tip links relax, reducing the hair-bundle stiffness. This gating compliance makes hair cells especially sensitive to small stimuli. The classical explanation for the gating compliance is that the conformational rearrangement of a single channel directly shortens the tip link. However, to reconcile theoretical models based on this mechanism with experimental data, an unrealistically large structural change of the channel is required. Experimental evidence indicates that each tip link is a dimeric molecule, associated on average with two channels at its lower end. It also indicates that the lipid bilayer modulates channel gating, although it is not clear how. Here, we design and analyze a model of mechanotransduction where each tip link attaches to two channels, mobile within the membrane. Their states and positions are coupled by membrane-mediated elastic forces arising from the interaction between the channels’ hydrophobic cores and that of the lipid bilayer. This coupling induces cooperative opening and closing of the channels. The model reproduces the main properties of hair-cell mechanotransduction using only realistic parameters constrained by experimental evidence. This work provides an insight into the fundamental role that membrane-mediated ion-channel cooperativity can play in sensory physiology.

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