Physico-biologie aux mésoéchelles

Publications de l’équipe

Année de publication : 2015

Nicolas Christophorou, Thomas Rubin, Isabelle Bonnet, Tristan Piolot, Marion Arnaud, Jean-René Huynh (2015 Oct 13)

Microtubule-driven nuclear rotations promote meiotic chromosome dynamics.

Nature cell biology : 1388-400 : DOI : 10.1038/ncb3249 En savoir plus
Résumé

At the onset of meiosis, each chromosome needs to find its homologue and pair to ensure proper segregation. In Drosophila, pairing occurs during the mitotic cycles preceding meiosis. Here we show that germ cell nuclei undergo marked movements during this developmental window. We demonstrate that microtubules and Dynein are driving nuclear rotations and are required for centromere pairing and clustering. We further found that Klaroid (SUN) and Klarsicht (KASH) co-localize with centromeres at the nuclear envelope and are required for proper chromosome motions and pairing. We identified Mud (NuMA in vertebrates) as co-localizing with centromeres, Klarsicht and Klaroid. Mud is also required to maintain the integrity of the nuclear envelope and for the correct assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Our findings reveal a mechanism for chromosome pairing in Drosophila, and indicate that microtubules, centrosomes and associated proteins play a crucial role in the dynamic organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus.

Replier
Nicolas Christophorou, Thomas Rubin, Isabelle Bonnet, Tristan Piolot, Marion Arnaud, Jean-René Huynh (2015 Oct 13)

Microtubule-driven nuclear rotations promote meiotic chromosome dynamics

Nature cell biology : 1388-400 : DOI : 10.1038/ncb3249 En savoir plus
Résumé

At the onset of meiosis, each chromosome needs to find its homologue and pair to ensure proper segregation. In Drosophila, pairing occurs during the mitotic cycles preceding meiosis. Here we show that germ cell nuclei undergo marked movements during this developmental window. We demonstrate that microtubules and Dynein are driving nuclear rotations and are required for centromere pairing and clustering. We further found that Klaroid (SUN) and Klarsicht (KASH) co-localize with centromeres at the nuclear envelope and are required for proper chromosome motions and pairing. We identified Mud (NuMA in vertebrates) as co-localizing with centromeres, Klarsicht and Klaroid. Mud is also required to maintain the integrity of the nuclear envelope and for the correct assembly of the synaptonemal complex. Our findings reveal a mechanism for chromosome pairing in Drosophila, and indicate that microtubules, centrosomes and associated proteins play a crucial role in the dynamic organization of chromosomes inside the nucleus.

Replier
Byung-Kuk Yoo, Axel Buguin, Zoher Gueroui (2015 Jul 30)

Biochemical perturbations of the mitotic spindle in Xenopus extracts using a diffusion-based microfluidic assay.

Biomicrofluidics : 044101 : DOI : 10.1063/1.4926324 En savoir plus
Résumé

A microfluidic device is a powerful tool to manipulate in a controlled manner at spatiotemporal scales for biological systems. Here, we describe a simple diffusion-based assay to generate and measure the effect of biochemical perturbations within the cytoplasm of cell-free extracts from Xenopus eggs. Our approach comprises a microliter reservoir and a model cytoplasm that are separated by a synthetic membrane containing sub-micrometric pores through which small molecules and recombinant proteins can diffuse. We have used this system to examine the perturbation of elements of the mitotic spindle, which is a microtubule-based bipolar structure involved in the segregation of the replicated genome to daughter cells during cell division. First, we used the small molecule inhibitor monastrol to target kinesin-5, a molecular motor that maintains the microtubule spindle bipolarity. Next, we explored the dynamics of the mitotic spindle by monitoring the exchange between unpolymerized and polymerized tubulin within microtubule fibers. These results show that a simple diffusion-based system can generate biochemical perturbations directly within a cell-free cytoplasm based on Xenopus egg extracts at the time scale of minutes. Our assay is therefore suitable for monitoring the dynamics of supramolecular assemblies within cell-free extracts in response to perturbations. This strategy opens up broad perspectives including phenotype screening or mechanistic studies of biological assembly processes and could be applied to other cell-free extracts such as those derived from mammalian or bacterial cells.

Replier
Vincent Nier, Maxime Deforet, Guillaume Duclos, Hannah G Yevick, Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Philippe Marcq, Pascal Silberzan (2015 Jul 21)

Tissue fusion over nonadhering surfaces.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America : 9546-51 : DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1501278112 En savoir plus
Résumé

Tissue fusion eliminates physical voids in a tissue to form a continuous structure and is central to many processes in development and repair. Fusion events in vivo, particularly in embryonic development, often involve the purse-string contraction of a pluricellular actomyosin cable at the free edge. However, in vitro, adhesion of the cells to their substrate favors a closure mechanism mediated by lamellipodial protrusions, which has prevented a systematic study of the purse-string mechanism. Here, we show that monolayers can cover well-controlled mesoscopic nonadherent areas much larger than a cell size by purse-string closure and that active epithelial fluctuations are required for this process. We have formulated a simple stochastic model that includes purse-string contractility, tissue fluctuations, and effective friction to qualitatively and quantitatively account for the dynamics of closure. Our data suggest that, in vivo, tissue fusion adapts to the local environment by coordinating lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contractions.

Replier
Floris Bosveld, Boris Guirao, Zhimin Wang, Mathieu Rivière, Isabelle Bonnet, François Graner, Yohanns Bellaïche (2015 Jul 5)

Modulation of junction tension by tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes regulates cell-cell contacts.

Development (Cambridge, England) : 623-34 : DOI : 10.1242/dev.127993 En savoir plus
Résumé

Tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes play crucial roles in tissue proliferation. Furthermore, de-regulation of their functions is deleterious to tissue architecture and can result in the sorting of somatic rounded clones minimizing their contact with surrounding wild-type (wt) cells. Defects in the shape of somatic clones correlate with defects in proliferation, cell affinity, cell-cell adhesion, oriented cell division and cortical contractility. Combining genetics, live-imaging, laser ablation and computer simulations, we aim to analyze whether distinct or similar mechanisms can account for the common role of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes in cell-cell contact regulation. In Drosophila epithelia, the tumor suppressors Fat (Ft) and Dachsous (Ds) regulate cell proliferation, tissue morphogenesis, planar cell polarity and junction tension. By analyzing the evolution over time of ft mutant cells and clones, we show that ft clones reduce their cell-cell contacts with the surrounding wt tissue in the absence of concomitant cell divisions and over-proliferation. This contact reduction depends on opposed changes of junction tensions in the clone bulk and its boundary with neighboring wt tissue. More generally, either clone bulk or boundary junction tension is modulated by the activation of Yorkie, Myc and Ras, yielding similar contact reductions with wt cells. Together, our data highlight mechanical roles for proto-oncogene and tumor suppressor pathways in cell-cell interactions.

Replier
Simon de Beco, Jean-Baptiste Perney, Sylvie Coscoy, François Amblard (2015 Jun 6)

Mechanosensitive Adaptation of E-Cadherin Turnover across adherens Junctions.

PloS one : e0128281 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0128281 En savoir plus
Résumé

In the natural and technological world, multi-agent systems strongly depend on how the interactions are ruled between their individual components, and the proper control of time-scales and synchronization is a key issue. This certainly applies to living tissues when multicellular assemblies such as epithelial cells achieve complex morphogenetic processes. In epithelia, because cells are known to individually generate actomyosin contractile stress, each individual intercellular adhesive junction line is subjected to the opposed stresses independently generated by its two partner cells. Contact lines should thus move unless their two partner cells mechanically match. The geometric homeostasis of mature epithelia observed at short enough time-scale thus raises the problem to understand how cells, if considered as noisy individual actuators, do adapt across individual intercellular contacts to locally balance their time-average contractile stress. Structural components of adherens junctions, cytoskeleton (F-actin) and homophilic bonds (E-cadherin) are quickly renewed at steady-state. These turnovers, if they depend on forces exerted at contacts, may play a key role in the mechanical adaptation of epithelia. Here we focus on E-cadherin as a force transducer, and we study the local regulation and the mechanosensitivity of its turnover in junctions. We show that E-cadherin turnover rates match remarkably well on either side of mature intercellular contacts, despite the fact that they exhibit large fluctuations in time and variations from one junction to another. Using local mechanical and biochemical perturbations, we find faster turnover rates with increased tension, and asymmetric rates at unbalanced junctions. Together, the observations that E-cadherin turnover, and its local symmetry or asymmetry at each side of the junction, are mechanosensitive, support the hypothesis that E-cadherin turnover could be involved in mechanical homeostasis of epithelia.

Replier
Yevick HG, Duclos G, Bonnet I, Silberzan P. (2015 May 12)

Architecture and migration of an epithelium on a cylindrical wire

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA112(19):5944-9 : DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1418857112 En savoir plus
Résumé

In a wide range of epithelial tissues such as kidney tubules or breast acini, cells organize into bidimensional monolayers experiencing an out-of-plane curvature. Cancer cells can also migrate collectively from epithelial tumors by wrapping around vessels or muscle fibers. However, in vitro experiments dealing with epithelia are mostly performed on flat substrates, neglecting this out-of-plane component. In this paper, we study the development and migration of epithelial tissues on glass wires of well-defined radii varying from less than 1 µm up to 85 µm. To uncouple the effect of out-of-plane curvature from the lateral confinement experienced by the cells in these geometries, we compare our results to experiments performed on narrow adhesive tracks. Because of lateral confinement, the velocity of collective migration increases for radii smaller than typically 20 µm. The monolayer dynamics is then controlled by front-edge protrusions. Conversely, high curvature is identified as the inducer of frequent cell detachments at the front edge, a phenotype reminiscent of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition. High curvature also induces a circumferential alignment of the actin cytoskeleton, stabilized by multiple focal adhesions. This organization of the cytoskeleton is reminiscent of in vivo situations such as the development of the trachea of the Drosophila embryo. Finally, submicron radii halt the monolayer, which then reconfigures into hollow cysts.

Replier
Marco Biondini, Guillaume Duclos, Nathalie Meyer-Schaller, Pascal Silberzan, Jacques Camonis, Maria Carla Parrini (2015 Mar 31)

Akirin specifies NF-κB selectivity of Drosophila innate immune response via chromatin remodeling

Scientific reports : 11759 : DOI : 10.1038/srep11759 En savoir plus
Résumé

RalA and RalB proteins are key mediators of oncogenic Ras signaling in human oncogenesis. Herein we investigated the mechanistic contribution of Ral proteins to invasion of lung cancer A549 cells after induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with TGFβ. We show that TGFβ-induced EMT promotes dissemination of A549 cells in a 2/3D assay, independently of proteolysis, by activating the Rho/ROCK pathway which generates actomyosin-dependent contractility forces that actively remodel the extracellular matrix, as assessed by Traction Force microscopy. RalB, but not RalA, is required for matrix deformation and cell dissemination acting via the RhoGEF GEF-H1, which associates with the Exocyst complex, a major Ral effector. Indeed, uncoupling of the Exocyst subunit Sec5 from GEF-H1 impairs RhoA activation, generation of traction forces and cell dissemination. These results provide a novel molecular mechanism underlying the control of cell invasion by RalB via a cross-talk with the Rho pathway.

Replier

Année de publication : 2014

Deforet M, Hakim V, Yevick HG, Duclos G, Silberzan P (2014 May 6)

Emergence of collective modes and tri-dimensional structures from epithelial confinement.

Nat Commun5:3747 : DOI : 10.1038/ncomms4747 En savoir plus
Résumé

Many in vivo processes, including morphogenesis or tumour maturation, involve small populations of cells within a spatially restricted region. However, the basic mechanisms underlying the dynamics of confined cell assemblies remain largely to be deciphered and would greatly benefit from well-controlled in vitro experiments. Here we show that confluent epithelial cells cultured on finite population-sized domains, exhibit collective low-frequency radial displacement modes as well as stochastic global rotation reversals. A simple mathematical model, in which cells are described as persistent random walkers that adapt their motion to that of their neighbours, captures the essential characteristics of these breathing oscillations. As these epithelia mature, a tri-dimensional peripheral cell cord develops at the domain edge by differential extrusion, as a result of the additional degrees of freedom of the border cells. These results demonstrate that epithelial confinement alone can induce morphogenesis-like processes including spontaneous collective pulsations and transition from 2D to 3D.

Replier
Reffay M, Parrini MC, Cochet-Escartin O, Ladoux B, Buguin A, Coscoy S, Amblard F, Camonis J, Silberzan P (2014 Apr 16)

Interplay of RhoA and mechanical forces in collective cell migration driven by leader cells

Nat Cell Biol16(4):382 : DOI : 10.1038/ncb2917 En savoir plus
Résumé

The leading front of a collectively migrating epithelium often destabilizes into multicellular migration fingers where a cell initially similar to the others becomes a leader cell while its neighbours do not alter. The determinants of these leader cells include mechanical and biochemical cues, often under the control of small GTPases. However, an accurate dynamic cartography of both mechanical and biochemical activities remains to be established. Here, by mapping the mechanical traction forces exerted on the surface by MDCK migration fingers, we show that these structures are mechanical global entities with the leader cells exerting a large traction force. Moreover, the spatial distribution of RhoA differential activity at the basal plane strikingly mirrors this force cartography. We propose that RhoA controls the development of these fingers through mechanical cues: the leader cell drags the structure and the peripheral pluricellular acto-myosin cable prevents the initiation of new leader cells.

Replier
G Duclos, S Garcia, H G Yevick, P Silberzan (2014 Mar 14)

Perfect nematic order in confined monolayers of spindle-shaped cells.

Soft matter : 10 : 2346-53 : DOI : 10.1039/c3sm52323c En savoir plus
Résumé

Elongated, weakly interacting, apolar, fibroblast cells (mouse fibroblasts NIH-3T3) cultured at confluence align together, forming large domains (correlation length ∼ 500 μm) where they are perfectly ordered. We study the emergence of this mesoscopic nematic order by quantifying the ordering dynamics in a two-dimensional tissue. Cells are initially very motile and the monolayer is characterized by anomalous density fluctuations, a signature of far-from-equilibrium systems. As the cell density increases because of proliferation, the cells align with each other forming these large oriented domains while, at the same time, the cellular movements and the density fluctuations freeze. Topological defects that are characteristic of nematic phases remain trapped at long times thereby preventing the development of infinite domains. When confined within adhesive stripes of given widths (from 30 μm to 1.5 mm) cells spontaneously align with the domain edges. This orientation then propagates toward the pattern center. For widths smaller than the orientation correlation length, cells perfectly align in the direction of the stripe. Experiments performed in cross-shaped patterns show that in the situation of two competing populations, both the number of cells and the degree of alignment impact the final orientation.

Replier
Olivier Cochet-Escartin, Jonas Ranft, Pascal Silberzan, Philippe Marcq (2013 Jul 20)

Border forces and friction control epithelial closure dynamics.

Biophysical journal : 65-73 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.11.015 En savoir plus
Résumé

We study the closure dynamics of a large number of well-controlled circular apertures within an epithelial monolayer, where the collective cell migration responsible for epithelization is triggered by the removal of a spatial constraint rather than by scratching. Based on experimental observations, we propose a physical model that takes into account border forces, friction with the substrate, and tissue rheology. Border protrusive activity drives epithelization despite the presence of a contractile actomyosin cable at the periphery of the wound. The closure dynamics is quantified by an epithelization coefficient, defined as the ratio of protrusive stress to tissue-substrate friction, that allows classification of different phenotypes. The same analysis demonstrates a distinct signature for human cells bearing the oncogenic RasV12 mutation, demonstrating the potential of the approach to quantitatively characterize metastatic transformations.

Replier

Année de publication : 2013

Zi Liang Wu, Renbo Wei, Axel Buguin, Jean-Marie Taulemesse, Nicolas Le Moigne, Anne Bergeret, Xiaogong Wang, Patrick Keller (2013 Jul 16)

Stimuli-responsive topological change of microstructured surfaces and the resultant variations of wetting properties.

ACS applied materials & interfaces : 7485-91 : DOI : 10.1021/am4017957 En savoir plus
Résumé

It is now well established that topological microstructures play a key role in the physical properties of surfaces. Stimulus-induced variations of topological microstructure should therefore lead to a change in the physical properties of microstructured responsive surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate that roughness changes alter the wetting properties of responsive organic surfaces. Oriented nematic liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are used to construct the microstructured surfaces via a replica molding technique. The topological microstructure of the surfaces covered with micropillars changes with temperature, due to the reversible contraction of the LCE pillars along the long axis at the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition. This is directly observed for the first time under environmental scanning electron microscopy (E-SEM). A high boiling point liquid, glycerol, is used to continuously monitor the contact angle change with temperature. The glycerol contact angle of the microstructured surfaces covered with small pillars decreases from 118° at room temperature to 80° at 140 °C, corresponding to a transition from Cassie state to Wenzel state.

Replier
Néstor Sepúlveda, Laurence Petitjean, Olivier Cochet, Erwan Grasland-Mongrain, Pascal Silberzan, Vincent Hakim (2013 Mar 7)

Collective cell motion in an epithelial sheet can be quantitatively described by a stochastic interacting particle model.

PLoS computational biology : e1002944 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002944 En savoir plus
Résumé

Modelling the displacement of thousands of cells that move in a collective way is required for the simulation and the theoretical analysis of various biological processes. Here, we tackle this question in the controlled setting where the motion of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells in a confluent epithelium is triggered by the unmasking of free surface. We develop a simple model in which cells are described as point particles with a dynamic based on the two premises that, first, cells move in a stochastic manner and, second, tend to adapt their motion to that of their neighbors. Detailed comparison to experimental data show that the model provides a quantitatively accurate description of cell motion in the epithelium bulk at early times. In addition, inclusion of model « leader » cells with modified characteristics, accounts for the digitated shape of the interface which develops over the subsequent hours, providing that leader cells invade free surface more easily than other cells and coordinate their motion with their followers. The previously-described progression of the epithelium border is reproduced by the model and quantitatively explained.

Replier

Année de publication : 2012

Jonathan Saragosti, Pascal Silberzan, Axel Buguin (2012 Jan 30)

Modeling E. coli tumbles by rotational diffusion. Implications for chemotaxis.

PloS one : e35412 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0035412 En savoir plus
Résumé

The bacterium Escherichia coli in suspension in a liquid medium swims by a succession of runs and tumbles, effectively describing a random walk. The tumbles randomize incompletely, i.e. with a directional persistence, the orientation taken by the bacterium. Here, we model these tumbles by an active rotational diffusion process characterized by a diffusion coefficient and a diffusion time. In homogeneous media, this description accounts well for the experimental reorientations. In shallow gradients of nutrients, tumbles are still described by a unique rotational diffusion coefficient. Together with an increase in the run length, these tumbles significantly contribute to the net chemotactic drift via a modulation of their duration as a function of the direction of the preceding run. Finally, we discuss the limits of this model in propagating concentration waves characterized by steep gradients. In that case, the effective rotational diffusion coefficient itself varies with the direction of the preceding run. We propose that this effect is related to the number of flagella involved in the reorientation process.

Replier