Décisions épigénétiques et reproduction chez les mammifères


Année de publication : 2006

T C Shovlin, D Bourc'his, S La Salle, A O'Doherty, J M Trasler, T H Bestor, C P Walsh (2006 Oct 25)

Sex-specific promoters regulate Dnmt3L expression in mouse germ cells.

Human reproduction (Oxford, England) : 457-67 En savoir plus

Dnmt3L, a member of the DNA methyltransferase 3 family, lacks enzymatic activity but is required for de-novo methylation of imprinted genes in oocytes and for transposon repression in male germ cells.

D Bourc'his, T H Bestor (2006 Apr 1)

Origins of extreme sexual dimorphism in genomic imprinting.

Cytogenetic and genome research : 36-40 En savoir plus

Roughly equal numbers of imprinted genes are subject to repression from alleles of maternal and of paternal origin. This masks the strong sexual dimorphism that underlies major aspects of imprinted gene regulation. First, imprints are established very early in the male germ line and persist for the reproductive life of the organism, while maternal genomic imprints are established shortly prior to ovulation and are erased soon thereafter in the primordial germ cells of the next generation. Second, many CpG island-associated promoters are subject to maternal methylation but no known promoters are subject to paternal-specific germline methylation. The few known paternal methylation marks are kilobases distant from the affected genes and have a low CpG density. Third, Dnmt3L is required for imprint establishment but not transposon methylation in female germ cells, while Dnmt3L is required for transposon methylation and has only a minor role in de novo methylation at imprinted loci in male germ cells. Fourth, maternally expressed genes are commonly repressed on the paternal allele by paternally expressed imprinted genes produced in cis and encoding nontranslated RNAs. It is here suggested that rapid loss of highly mutable methylated CpG sites has led to the depletion of methylation target sites in paternally repressed imprinted genes, and that an imprinting mechanism based on RNAs or local inhibitory influences of ongoing transcription of regulatory loci has evolved to counter the erosion of paternally methylated regulatory regions. This mutability model is based on the fact that paternally methylated sequences are maintained in the methylated state for a much longer time than are maternally methylated sequences, and are therefore lost at a correspondingly faster rate. The difference in timing of imprint establishment is likely to underlie the increasing sexual dimorphism of other aspects of imprinted gene expression.

Timothy H Bestor, Déborah Bourc'his (2006 Feb 28)

Genetics and epigenetics of hydatidiform moles.

Nature genetics : 274-6 En savoir plus


Année de publication : 2005

Jie Liu, Min Chen, Chuxia Deng, Déborah Bourc'his, Julie G Nealon, Beth Erlichman, Timothy H Bestor, Lee S Weinstein (2005 Apr 7)

Identification of the control region for tissue-specific imprinting of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America : 5513-8 En savoir plus

Gnas is a complex gene with multiple imprinted promoters. The upstream Nesp and Nespas/Gnasxl promoters are paternally and maternally methylated, respectively. The downstream promoter for the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (G(s)alpha) is unmethylated, although in some tissues (e.g., renal proximal tubules), G(s)alpha is poorly expressed from the paternal allele. Just upstream of the G(s)alpha promoter is a primary imprint mark (1A region) where maternal-specific methylation is established during oogenesis. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B, a disorder of renal parathyroid hormone resistance, is associated with loss of 1A methylation. Analysis of embryos of Dnmt3L(-/-) mothers (which cannot methylate maternal imprint marks) showed that Nesp, Nespas/Gnasxl, and 1A imprinting depend on one or more maternal primary imprint marks. We generated mice with deletion of the 1A differentially methylated region. These mice had normal Nesp-Nespas/Gnasxl imprinting, indicating that the Gnas locus contains two independent imprinting domains (Nespas-Nespas/Gnasxl and 1A-G(s)alpha) controlled by distinct maternal primary imprint marks. Paternal, but not maternal, 1A deletion resulted in G(s)alpha overexpression in proximal tubules and evidence for increased parathyroid hormone sensitivity but had no effect on G(s)alpha expression in other tissues where G(s)alpha is normally not imprinted. The 1A region is a maternal imprint mark that contains one or more methylation-sensitive cis-acting elements that suppress G(s)alpha expression from the paternal allele in a tissue-specific manner.


Année de publication : 2004

Y L Jiang, M Rigolet, D Bourc'his, F Nigon, I Bokesoy, J P Fryns, M Hultén, P Jonveaux, P Maraschio, A Mégarbané, A Moncla, E Viegas-Péquignot (2004 Dec 8)

DNMT3B mutations and DNA methylation defect define two types of ICF syndrome.

Human mutation : 56-63 En savoir plus

ICF syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by variable immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial abnormalities. Mutations in the catalytic domain of DNMT3B, a gene encoding a de novo DNA methyltransferase, have been recognized in a subset of patients. ICF syndrome is a genetic disease directly related to a genomic methylation defect that mainly affects classical satellites 2 and 3, both components of constitutive heterochromatin. The variable incidence of DNMT3B mutations and the differential methylation defect of alpha satellites allow the identification of two types of patients, both showing an undermethylation of classical satellite DNA. This classification illustrates the specificity of the methylation process and raises questions about the genetic heterogeneity of the ICF syndrome.

Déborah Bourc'his, Timothy H Bestor (2004 Aug 20)

Meiotic catastrophe and retrotransposon reactivation in male germ cells lacking Dnmt3L.

Nature : 96-9 En savoir plus

Mammalian genomes employ heritable cytosine methylation in the long-term silencing of retrotransposons and genes subject to genomic imprinting and X chromosome inactivation. Little is known of the mechanisms that direct cytosine methylation to specific sequences. Here we show that DNA methyltransferase 3-like (Dnmt3L (ref. 1)) is expressed in testes during a brief perinatal period in the non-dividing precursors of spermatogonial stem cells at a stage where retrotransposons undergo de novo methylation. Deletion of the Dnmt3L gene prevented the de novo methylation of both long-terminal-repeat (LTR) and non-LTR retrotransposons, which were transcribed at high levels in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Loss of Dnmt3L from early germ cells also caused meiotic failure in spermatocytes, which do not express Dnmt3L. Whereas dispersed repeated sequences were demethylated in mutant germ cells, tandem repeats in pericentric regions were methylated normally. This result indicates that the Dnmt3L protein might have a function in the de novo methylation of dispersed repeated sequences in a premeiotic genome scanning process that occurs in male germ cells at about the time of birth.