Diversité et plasticité des tumeurs de l’enfant

Publications de l’équipe

Année de publication : 2003

Gudrun Schleiermacher, Virginie Raynal, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Valérie Combaret, Alain Aurias, Olivier Delattre (2003 Dec 30)

Variety and complexity of chromosome 17 translocations in neuroblastoma.

Genes, chromosomes & cancer : 143-50 En savoir plus
Résumé

In neuroblastoma, the most frequent genetic alteration is gain of chromosome arm 17q, which arises from unbalanced translocations. To document these genetic events more precisely, we performed an extensive study of chromosome 17 breakpoints in 27 neuroblastoma cell lines by using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping with BAC/PAC clones and allele analysis with polymorphic markers. All cases exhibited one or more unbalanced chromosome 17 translocations, and 15 distinct breakpoint regions could be mapped. This high variability indicates that gene fusion or disruption events are extremely unlikely to account for the underlying oncogenic role of these translocations. However, breakpoints were not randomly distributed, most of them mapping to the proximal part of 17q. As a result of translocations, all cell lines but one exhibited gain of the 53.5 Mb–>qter fragment, bordered proximally by the clone CTC-462L7. The most telomeric breakpoint, flanked by the clone RP11-443M10, defined the 70.9 Mb–>qter fragment as a region of additional gain. In addition to chromosome gains, loss of heterozygosity for the short arm of chromosome 17 was observed in close to half the cases. It was either related to a chromosome 17 monosomy or to a uniparental isodisomy. Finally, in cases with a single normal chromosome 17, we show that the parental origin of the translocated chromosome 17 can be either distinct or identical to that of the normal chromosome. Similarly, multiple translocations within the same cell line can either involve the same or different chromosome 17 homologues, indicating the likely absence of parental origin bias in the generation of these alterations.

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Gudrun Schleiermacher, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Valérie Combaret, Josette Derré, Jérome Couturier, Alain Aurias, Olivier Delattre (2003 Feb 13)

Combined 24-color karyotyping and comparative genomic hybridization analysis indicates predominant rearrangements of early replicating chromosome regions in neuroblastoma.

Cancer genetics and cytogenetics : 32-42 En savoir plus
Résumé

Neuroblastoma is characterized by several distinct genetic alterations including MYCN amplification, chromosome 1p deletion and gain of chromosome 17. Although these alterations are thought to play a crucial role in oncogenesis, to date little is known about their underlying mechanisms. In order to more precisely document these genetic alterations, we have performed a combined study of 27 neuroblastoma cell lines using 24-color karyotyping (24-CK) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). 24-CK detected balanced translocations in 13 cases with recurrent involvement of chromosome 8. More importantly, 144 nonreciprocal translocations were observed in the 27 cell lines, with chromosome 1 as the most frequent recipient and chromosome 17 the most frequent donor. Each cell line exhibited at least one unbalanced translocation involving 17q, with 14 cell lines demonstrating more than one such translocation. Other recurrent alterations were amplification of the 2p24 chromosome region, which encodes the MYCN oncogene, losses of 1p, 3p and 11q, and gains of 1q and 7. In most cases, CGH profiles were directly linked to the presence of unbalanced translocations with gain of the donor fragment and loss of the replaced region on the recipient chromosome. Strikingly, over 60% of the chromosome breakpoints mapped to early replicating chromosome bands, which represent around 13% of the genome. Altogether these data suggest that neuroblastoma is characterized by rearrangements that predominantly involve chromosome fragments replicating early in the S-phase.

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Année de publication : 2002

Josiane Sancéau, Marie-France Poupon, Olivier Delattre, Xavier Sastre-Garau, Juana Wietzerbin (2002 Oct 26)

Strong inhibition of Ewing tumor xenograft growth by combination of human interferon-alpha or interferon-beta with ifosfamide.

Oncogene : 7700-9 En savoir plus
Résumé

Ewing sarcoma is the second most common bone tumor in childhood. Despite aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy strategies, the prognosis of patients with metastatic disease remains poor. We have recently reported that Ewing tumor cell proliferation was strongly inhibited by IFN-beta and to a lesser degree by IFN-alpha. Moreover, under IFN-beta treatment, some cell lines undergo apoptosis. Since the possibility of using IFNs for Ewing tumor treatments may be of interest, we have evaluated the efficacy of Hu-IFNs in a nude mice model of Ewing tumor xenografts. The results reported here show that human type I IFNs, Hu-IFN-alpha and Hu-IFN-beta impaired tumor xenograft take and displayed an anti-growth effect toward established xenografts. Furthermore, we have also shown that combined therapy with Hu-IFNs and ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent widely used in high-dose chemotherapy of Ewing tumors, results in a strong antitumor effect. Pathological analysis showed that Hu-IFN-alpha/IFO and Hu-IFN-beta/IFO were characterized by a dramatic decrease in the mitotic index and marked necrosis, as well as extensive fibrosis associated with numerous calcifications. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a potential antitumor effect of human type I IFNs and IFO on Ewing tumors, providing a rational foundation for a promising therapeutic approach to Ewing sarcoma.

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Isabella Versteege, Souhila Medjkane, Danny Rouillard, Olivier Delattre (2002 Sep 13)

A key role of the hSNF5/INI1 tumour suppressor in the control of the G1-S transition of the cell cycle.

Oncogene : 6403-12 En savoir plus
Résumé

The hSNF5/INI1 gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes. It was recently identified as a tumour suppressor gene mutated in sporadic and hereditary Malignant Rhabdoid Tumours (MRT). However, the role of hSNF5/INI1 loss-of-function in tumour development is still unknown. Here, we show that the ectopic expression of wild-type hSNF5/INI1, but not that of truncated versions, leads to a cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the entry into S phase of MRT cells. This G1 arrest is associated with down-regulation of a subset of E2F targets including cyclin A, E2F1 and CDC6. This arrest can be reverted by coexpression of cyclin D1, cyclin E or viral E1A, whereas it cannot be counteracted by pRB-binding deficient E1A mutants. Moreover, hSNF5/INI1 is not able to arrest cells lacking a functional pRB. These observations suggest that the hSNF5/INI1-induced G1 arrest is dependent upon the presence of a functional pRB. However, the observation that a constitutively active pRB can efficiently arrest MRT cells indicates that hSNF5/INI1, at the difference of the ATPase subunits of the SWI/SNF complex, is dispensable for pRB function. Altogether, these data show that hSNF5/INI1 is a potent regulator of the entry into S phase, an effect that may account for its tumour suppressor role.

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Philippe Mérel, Alexandre Prieur, Petra Pfeiffer, Olivier Delattre (2002 Aug 8)

Absence of major defects in non-homologous DNA end joining in human breast cancer cell lines.

Oncogene : 5654-9 En savoir plus
Résumé

Structural abnormalities of chromosomes, including translocations and deletions, are extremely frequent in human cancer cells and particularly in breast cancer cells. One hypothesis to account for these alterations is a deficiency in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). This repair process relies on two distinct pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). To investigate this latter pathway, we have studied the ability of cell-free extracts from a variety of human cells to rejoin different types of DSBs. The end joining activity of eleven sporadic breast cancer cell lines (BCCLs) was compared with that of control cells including primary human fibroblasts and cells harbouring a limited number of chromosome abnormalities. In vitro rejoining activity was not detected in extracts from MO59J DNA-PKcs-deficient cells and was strongly inhibited by wortmannin in control extracts. In contrast, most sporadic BCCLs and BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficient cells demonstrated similar efficiencies and accuracies of in vitro NHEJ than control cells. Only two BCCLs, SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453 exhibited decreased in vitro NHEJ. This study therefore indicates that a major defect in the NHEJ pathway is unlikely to account for the high number of chromosomes abnormalities observed in sporadic and hereditary BCCLs.

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Isabelle Hostein, Armelle Menard, Bin Nguyen Bui, Cathy Lussan, Jean Wafflart, Olivier Delattre, Martine Peter, Jean Benhattar, Louis Guillou, Jean-Michel Coindre (2002 Feb 21)

Molecular detection of the synovial sarcoma translocation t(X;18) by real-time polymerase chain reaction in paraffin-embedded material.

Diagnostic molecular pathology : the American journal of surgical pathology, part B : 16-21 En savoir plus
Résumé

The t(X;18) translocation is known to be a useful marker for the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. In this study, the authors describe a new real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to detect SYT/SSX fusion transcripts using paraffin-embedded and frozen tumor specimens. A series of 38 soft tissue sarcomas were analyzed. Diagnosis was based on clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical examination. The fusion transcripts were detected in 16 of 17 synovial sarcoma samples (the 17th sample was not suitable for molecular analysis). No t(X;18)-fusion transcript was PCR-amplified in the 21 nonsynovial sarcoma mesenchymal tumors. Therefore, real-time PCR amplification appears to be a powerful, rapid, specific, and sensitive technique that can be used routinely to diagnose the synovial sarcoma t(X;18) translocation. In addition, the t(X;18) can be detected not only on frozen but also on paraffin-embedded tumor samples.

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