UMR3348 – Intégrité du génome, ARN et cancer

Publications de l’unité

Année de publication : 2015

Sara Chiker, Vincent Pennaneach, Damarys Loew, Florent Dingli, Denis Biard, Fabrice P Cordelières, Simon Gemble, Sophie Vacher, Ivan Bieche, Janet Hall, Marie Fernet (2015 Aug 3)

Cdk5 promotes DNA replication stress checkpoint activation through RPA-32 phosphorylation, and impacts on metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients.

Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) : 3066-78 : DOI : 10.1080/15384101.2015.1078020 En savoir plus
Résumé

Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a determinant of PARP inhibitor and ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity. Here we show that Cdk5-depleted (Cdk5-shRNA) HeLa cells show higher sensitivity to S-phase irradiation, chronic hydroxyurea exposure, and 5-fluorouracil and 6-thioguanine treatment, with hydroxyurea and IR sensitivity also seen in Cdk5-depleted U2OS cells. As Cdk5 is not directly implicated in DNA strand break repair we investigated in detail its proposed role in the intra-S checkpoint activation. While Cdk5-shRNA HeLa cells showed altered basal S-phase dynamics with slower replication velocity and fewer active origins per DNA megabase, checkpoint activation was impaired after a hydroxyurea block. Cdk5 depletion was associated with reduced priming phosphorylations of RPA32 serines 29 and 33 and SMC1-Serine 966 phosphorylation, lower levels of RPA serine 4 and 8 phosphorylation and DNA damage measured using the alkaline Comet assay, gamma-H2AX signal intensity, RPA and Rad51 foci, and sister chromatid exchanges resulting in impaired intra-S checkpoint activation and subsequently higher numbers of chromatin bridges. In vitro kinase assays coupled with mass spectrometry demonstrated that Cdk5 can carry out the RPA32 priming phosphorylations on serines 23, 29, and 33 necessary for this checkpoint activation. In addition we found an association between lower Cdk5 levels and longer metastasis free survival in breast cancer patients and survival in Cdk5-depleted breast tumor cells after treatment with IR and a PARP inhibitor. Taken together, these results show that Cdk5 is necessary for basal replication and replication stress checkpoint activation and highlight clinical opportunities to enhance tumor cell killing.

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Magali Grange, Marilyn Giordano, Amandine Mas, Romain Roncagalli, Guylène Firaguay, Jacques A Nunes, Jacques Ghysdael, Anne-Marie Schmitt-Verhulst, Nathalie Auphan-Anezin (2015 Aug 1)

Control of CD8 T cell proliferation and terminal differentiation by active STAT5 and CDKN2A/CDKN2B.

Immunology : 543-57 : DOI : 10.1111/imm.12471 En savoir plus
Résumé

CD8 T cells used in adoptive immunotherapy may be manipulated to optimize their effector functions, tissue-migratory properties and long-term replicative potential. We reported that antigen-stimulated CD8 T cells transduced to express an active form of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5CA) maintained these properties upon adoptive transfer. We now report on the requirements of STAT5CA-expressing CD8 T cells for cell survival and proliferation in vivo. We show that STAT5CA expression allows for greater expansion of T cells in vivo, while preserving dependency on T-cell-receptor-mediated tonic stimulation for their in vivo maintenance and return to a quiescent stage. STAT5CA expression promotes the formation of a large pool of effector memory T cells that respond upon re-exposure to antigen and present an increased sensitivity to γc receptor cytokine engagement for STAT5 phosphorylation. In addition, STAT5CA expression prolongs the survival of what would otherwise be short-lived terminally differentiated KLRG1-positive effector cells with up-regulated expression of the senescence-associated p16(INK) (4A) transcripts. However, development of a KLRG1-positive CD8 T cell population was independent of either p16(INK) (4A) or p19(ARF) expression (as shown using T cells from CDKN2A(-/-) mice) but was associated with expression of transcripts encoding p15(INK) (4B) , another protein involved in senescence induction. We conclude that T-cell-receptor- and cytokine-dependent regulation of effector T cell homeostasis, as well as mechanisms leading to senescent features of a population of CD8 T cells are maintained in STAT5CA-expressing CD8 T cells, even for cells that are genetically deficient in expression of the tumour suppressors p16(INK) (4A) and p19(ARF) .

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Simon Gemble, Akshay Ahuja, Géraldine Buhagiar-Labarchède, Rosine Onclercq-Delic, Julien Dairou, Denis S F Biard, Sarah Lambert, Massimo Lopes, Mounira Amor-Guéret (2015 Jul 16)

Pyrimidine Pool Disequilibrium Induced by a Cytidine Deaminase Deficiency Inhibits PARP-1 Activity, Leading to the Under Replication of DNA.

PLoS genetics : e1005384 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005384 En savoir plus
Résumé

Genome stability is jeopardized by imbalances of the dNTP pool; such imbalances affect the rate of fork progression. For example, cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency leads to an excess of dCTP, slowing the replication fork. We describe here a novel mechanism by which pyrimidine pool disequilibrium compromises the completion of replication and chromosome segregation: the intracellular accumulation of dCTP inhibits PARP-1 activity. CDA deficiency results in incomplete DNA replication when cells enter mitosis, leading to the formation of ultrafine anaphase bridges between sister-chromatids at « difficult-to-replicate » sites such as centromeres and fragile sites. Using molecular combing, electron microscopy and a sensitive assay involving cell imaging to quantify steady-state PAR levels, we found that DNA replication was unsuccessful due to the partial inhibition of basal PARP-1 activity, rather than slower fork speed. The stimulation of PARP-1 activity in CDA-deficient cells restores replication and, thus, chromosome segregation. Moreover, increasing intracellular dCTP levels generates under-replication-induced sister-chromatid bridges as efficiently as PARP-1 knockdown. These results have direct implications for Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disease combining susceptibility to cancer and genomic instability. BS results from mutation of the BLM gene, encoding BLM, a RecQ 3′-5′ DNA helicase, a deficiency of which leads to CDA downregulation. BS cells thus have a CDA defect, resulting in a high frequency of ultrafine anaphase bridges due entirely to dCTP-dependent PARP-1 inhibition and independent of BLM status. Our study describes previously unknown pathological consequences of the distortion of dNTP pools and reveals an unexpected role for PARP-1 in preventing DNA under-replication and chromosome segregation defects.

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Diana Passaro, Marta Irigoyen, Claire Catherinet, Stéphanie Gachet, Cindy Da Costa De Jesus, Charlène Lasgi, Christine Tran Quang, Jacques Ghysdael (2015 Jun 8)

CXCR4 Is Required for Leukemia-Initiating Cell Activity in T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Cancer cell : 769-79 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ccell.2015.05.003 En savoir plus
Résumé

Impaired cell migration has been demonstrated in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells upon calcineurin inactivation, among other phenotypic traits including increased apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and ultimately inhibition of leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) activity. Herein we demonstrate that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential to the LIC activity of T-ALL leukemic cells both in NOTCH-induced mouse T-ALL and human T-ALL xenograft models. We further demonstrate that calcineurin regulates CXCR4 cell-surface expression in a cortactin-dependent manner, a mechanism essential to the migratory properties of T-ALL cells. Because 20%-25% of pediatric and over 50% of adult patients with T-ALL do not achieve complete remission and relapse, our results call for clinical trials incorporating CXCR4 antagonists in T-ALL treatment.

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Marin Barisic, Ricardo Silva e Sousa, Suvranta K Tripathy, Maria M Magiera, Anatoly V Zaytsev, Ana L Pereira, Carsten Janke, Ekaterina L Grishchuk, Helder Maiato (2015 May 15)

Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis.

Science (New York, N.Y.) : 799-803 : DOI : 10.1126/science.aaa5175 En savoir plus
Résumé

Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically toward the equator. We found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific posttranslational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules, and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination.

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Saed Mohebi, Sarah A E Lambert, Antony M Carr (2015 Apr 29)

Analyzing the Response to Dysfunction Replication Forks Using the RTS1 Barrier System in Fission Yeast.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) : 239-59 : DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4939-2596-4_15 En savoir plus
Résumé

The study of how eukaryotic cells overcome problems associated with dysfunctional DNA replication forks is assisted by experimental systems that allow site-specific replication fork arrest. Here we provide protocols for the use of the fission yeast RTS1 replication fork barrier. The RTS1 barrier is a directional, or polar, replication fork barrier that evolved to ensure directional replication of the fission yeast mating-type locus. We have moved the 859 bp RTS1 sequence to another locus in the genome and demonstrated that it arrests replication forks in a dysfunctional confirmation and that replication is restarted within ~20 min by the action of homologous recombination. We describe here the barrier constructs currently available, the methods by which we regulate the activity of the barrier, how to synchronize cells for analysis of replication intermediates by 2D gel electrophoresis, and the use of a replication slippage assay to measure fork fidelity.

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Nathalie Delgehyr, Alice Meunier, Marion Faucourt, Montserrat Bosch Grau, Laetitia Strehl, Carsten Janke, Nathalie Spassky (2015 Apr 4)

Ependymal cell differentiation, from monociliated to multiciliated cells.

Methods in cell biology : 19-35 : DOI : 10.1016/bs.mcb.2015.01.004 En savoir plus
Résumé

Primary and motile cilia differ in their structure, composition, and function. In the brain, primary cilia are immotile signalling organelles present on neural stem cells and neurons. Multiple motile cilia are found on the surface of ependymal cells in all brain ventricles, where they contribute to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. During development, monociliated ependymal progenitor cells differentiate into multiciliated ependymal cells, thus providing a simple system for studying the transition between these two stages. In this chapter, we provide protocols for immunofluorescence staining of developing ependymal cells in vivo, on whole mounts of lateral ventricle walls, and in vitro, on cultured ependymal cells. We also provide a list of markers we currently use to stain both types of cilia, including proteins at the ciliary membrane and tubulin posttranslational modifications of the axoneme.

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Mohammed-Tayyib Boudra, Celeste Bolin, Sara Chiker, Alexis Fouquin, Tomasz Zaremba, Laurence Vaslin, Denis Biard, Fabrice P Cordelières, Frédérique Mégnin-Chanet, Vincent Favaudon, Marie Fernet, Vincent Pennaneach, Janet Hall (2015 Apr 1)

PARP-2 depletion results in lower radiation cell survival but cell line-specific differences in poly(ADP-ribose) levels.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS : 72 : 1585-1597 : DOI : 10.1007/s00018-014-1765-2 En savoir plus
Résumé

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) activity contributes to a cells’ poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating potential and like PARP-1, has been implicated in several DNA repair pathways including base excision repair and DNA single strand break repair. Here the consequences of its stable depletion in HeLa, U20S, and AS3WT2 cells were examined. All three PARP-2 depleted models showed increased sensitivity to the cell killing effects on ionizing radiation as reported in PARP-2 depleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts providing further evidence for a role in DNA strand break repair. The PARP-2 depleted HeLa cells also showed both higher constitutive and DNA damage-induced levels of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) associated with unchanged PARP-1 protein levels, but higher PARP activity and a concomitant lower PARG protein levels and activity. These changes were accompanied by a reduced maximal recruitment of PARP-1, XRCC1, PCNA, and PARG to DNA damage sites. This PAR-associated phenotype could be reversed in HeLa cells on re-expression of PARP-2 and was not seen in U20S and AS3WT2 cells. These results highlight the complexity of the relationship between different members of the PARP family on PAR metabolism and suggest that cell model dependent phenotypes associated with the absence of PARP-2 exist within a common background of radiation sensitivity.

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C Tran Quang, S Leboucher, D Passaro, L Fuhrmann, M Nourieh, A Vincent-Salomon, J Ghysdael (2015 Feb 26)

The calcineurin/NFAT pathway is activated in diagnostic breast cancer cases and is essential to survival and metastasis of mammary cancer cells.

Cell death & disease : e1658 : DOI : 10.1038/cddis.2015.14 En savoir plus
Résumé

Nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1) expression has been associated with increased migratory/invasive properties of mammary tumor-derived cell lines in vitro. It is unknown, however, if NFAT activation actually occurs in breast cancer cases and whether the calcineurin/NFAT pathway is important to mammary tumorigenesis. Using a cohort of 321 diagnostic cases of the major subgroup of breast cancer, we found Cn/NFAT pathway activated in ER(-)PR(-)HER2(-) triple-negative breast cancer subtype, whereas its prevalence is less in other subgroups. Using a small hairpin RNA-based gene expression silencing approach in murine mammary tumor cell line (4T1), we show that not only NFAT1 but also NFAT2 and their upstream activator Cn are essential to the migratory and invasive properties of mammary tumor cells. We also demonstrate that Cn, NFAT1 and NFAT2 are essential to the tumorigenic and metastatic properties of these cells in mice, a phenotype which coincides with increased apoptosis in vivo. Finally, global gene expression analyses identified several NFAT-deregulated genes, many of them being previously associated with mammary tumorigenesis. In particular, we identified the gene encoding a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombonspondin motifs 1, as being a potential direct target of NFAT1. Thus, our results show that the Cn/NFAT pathway is activated in diagnostic cases of breast cancers and is essential to the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of mammary tumor cell line. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the Cn/NFAT pathway at different levels could be of therapeutical interest for breast cancer patients.

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Magali Casanova, Frédérique de Monbrison, Juliette van Dijk, Carsten Janke, Michel Pagès, Patrick Bastien (2015 Feb 1)

Characterisation of polyglutamylases in trypanosomatids.

International journal for parasitology : 121-32 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.09.005 En savoir plus
Résumé

Microtubules are subject to post-translational modifications, which are thought to have crucial roles in the function of complex microtubule-based organelles. Among these, polyglutamylation was relatively recently discovered, and was related to centrosome stability, axonemal maintenance and mobility, and neurite outgrowth. In trypanosomatids, parasitic protozoa where microtubules constitute the essential component of the cytoskeleton, the function of polyglutamylated microtubules is unknown. Here, in order to better understand the role of this conserved but highly divergent post-translational modification, we characterised glutamylation and putative polyglutamylases in these parasites. We showed that microtubules are intensely glutamylated in all stages of the cell cycle, including interphase. Moreover, a cell cycle-dependent gradient of glutamylation was observed along the cell anteroposterior axis, which might be related to active growth of the microtubule ‘corset’ during the cell cycle. We also identified two putative polyglutamylase proteins (among seven analysed here) which appeared to be clearly and directly involved in microtubule polyglutamylation in in vitro activity assays. Paradoxically, in view of the importance of tubulins and of their extensive glutamylation in these organisms, RNA interference-based knockdown of all these proteins had no effect on cell growth, suggesting either functional redundancy or, more likely, subtle roles such as function modulation or interaction with protein partners.

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Année de publication : 2014

Violena Pietrobon, Karine Fréon, Julien Hardy, Audrey Costes, Ismail Iraqui, Françoise Ochsenbein, Sarah A E Lambert (2014 Oct 14)

The chromatin assembly factor 1 promotes Rad51-dependent template switches at replication forks by counteracting D-loop disassembly by the RecQ-type helicase Rqh1.

PLoS biology : e1001968 : DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001968 En savoir plus
Résumé

At blocked replication forks, homologous recombination mediates the nascent strands to switch template in order to ensure replication restart, but faulty template switches underlie genome rearrangements in cancer cells and genomic disorders. Recombination occurs within DNA packaged into chromatin that must first be relaxed and then restored when recombination is completed. The chromatin assembly factor 1, CAF-1, is a histone H3-H4 chaperone involved in DNA synthesis-coupled chromatin assembly during DNA replication and DNA repair. We reveal a novel chromatin factor-dependent step during replication-coupled DNA repair: Fission yeast CAF-1 promotes Rad51-dependent template switches at replication forks, independently of the postreplication repair pathway. We used a physical assay that allows the analysis of the individual steps of template switch, from the recruitment of recombination factors to the formation of joint molecules, combined with a quantitative measure of the resulting rearrangements. We reveal functional and physical interplays between CAF-1 and the RecQ-helicase Rqh1, the BLM homologue, mutations in which cause Bloom’s syndrome, a human disease associating genome instability with cancer predisposition. We establish that CAF-1 promotes template switch by counteracting D-loop disassembly by Rqh1. Consequently, the likelihood of faulty template switches is controlled by antagonistic activities of CAF-1 and Rqh1 in the stability of the D-loop. D-loop stabilization requires the ability of CAF-1 to interact with PCNA and is thus linked to the DNA synthesis step. We propose that CAF-1 plays a regulatory role during template switch by assembling chromatin on the D-loop and thereby impacting the resolution of the D-loop.

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Olivia Tort, Sebastián Tanco, Cecilia Rocha, Ivan Bièche, Cecilia Seixas, Christophe Bosc, Annie Andrieux, Marie-Jo Moutin, Francesc Xavier Avilés, Julia Lorenzo, Carsten Janke (2014 Oct 1)

The cytosolic carboxypeptidases CCP2 and CCP3 catalyze posttranslational removal of acidic amino acids.

Molecular biology of the cell : 3017-27 : DOI : 10.1091/mbc.E14-06-1072 En savoir plus
Résumé

The posttranslational modification of carboxy-terminal tails of tubulin plays an important role in the regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Enzymes responsible for deglutamylating tubulin have been discovered within a novel family of mammalian cytosolic carboxypeptidases. The discovery of these enzymes also revealed the existence of a range of other substrates that are enzymatically deglutamylated. Only four of six mammalian cytosolic carboxypeptidases had been enzymatically characterized. Here we complete the functional characterization of this protein family by demonstrating that CCP2 and CCP3 are deglutamylases, with CCP3 being able to hydrolyze aspartic acids with similar efficiency. Deaspartylation is a novel posttranslational modification that could, in conjunction with deglutamylation, broaden the range of potential substrates that undergo carboxy-terminal processing. In addition, we show that CCP2 and CCP3 are highly regulated proteins confined to ciliated tissues. The characterization of two novel enzymes for carboxy-terminal protein modification provides novel insights into the broadness of this barely studied process.

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Cecilia Rocha, Laura Papon, Wulfran Cacheux, Patricia Marques Sousa, Valeria Lascano, Olivia Tort, Tiziana Giordano, Sophie Vacher, Benedicte Lemmers, Pascale Mariani, Didier Meseure, Jan Paul Medema, Ivan Bièche, Michael Hahne, Carsten Janke (2014 Oct 1)

Tubulin glycylases are required for primary cilia, control of cell proliferation and tumor development in colon.

The EMBO journal : 2247-60 : DOI : 10.15252/embj.201488466 En savoir plus
Résumé

TTLL3 and TTLL8 are tubulin glycine ligases catalyzing posttranslational glycylation of microtubules. We show here for the first time that these enzymes are required for robust formation of primary cilia. We further discover the existence of primary cilia in colon and demonstrate that TTLL3 is the only glycylase in this organ. As a consequence, colon epithelium shows a reduced number of primary cilia accompanied by an increased rate of cell division in TTLL3-knockout mice. Strikingly, higher proliferation is compensated by faster tissue turnover in normal colon. In a mouse model for tumorigenesis, lack of TTLL3 strongly promotes tumor development. We further demonstrate that decreased levels of TTLL3 expression are linked to the development of human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for tubulin glycylation in primary cilia maintenance, which controls cell proliferation of colon epithelial cells and plays an essential role in colon cancer development.

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Lise Boussemart, Hélène Malka-Mahieu, Isabelle Girault, Delphine Allard, Oskar Hemmingsson, Gorana Tomasic, Marina Thomas, Christine Basmadjian, Nigel Ribeiro, Frédéric Thuaud, Christina Mateus, Emilie Routier, Nyam Kamsu-Kom, Sandrine Agoussi, Alexander M Eggermont, Laurent Désaubry, Caroline Robert, Stéphan Vagner (2014 Sep 4)

eIF4F is a nexus of resistance to anti-BRAF and anti-MEK cancer therapies.

Nature : 105-9 : DOI : 10.1038/nature13572 En savoir plus
Résumé

In BRAF(V600)-mutant tumours, most mechanisms of resistance to drugs that target the BRAF and/or MEK kinases rely on reactivation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway, on activation of the alternative, PI(3)K-AKT-mTOR, pathway (which is ERK independent) or on modulation of the caspase-dependent apoptotic cascade. All three pathways converge to regulate the formation of the eIF4F eukaryotic translation initiation complex, which binds to the 7-methylguanylate cap (m(7)G) at the 5′ end of messenger RNA, thereby modulating the translation of specific mRNAs. Here we show that the persistent formation of the eIF4F complex, comprising the eIF4E cap-binding protein, the eIF4G scaffolding protein and the eIF4A RNA helicase, is associated with resistance to anti-BRAF, anti-MEK and anti-BRAF plus anti-MEK drug combinations in BRAF(V600)-mutant melanoma, colon and thyroid cancer cell lines. Resistance to treatment and maintenance of eIF4F complex formation is associated with one of three mechanisms: reactivation of MAPK signalling, persistent ERK-independent phosphorylation of the inhibitory eIF4E-binding protein 4EBP1 or increased pro-apoptotic BCL-2-modifying factor (BMF)-dependent degradation of eIF4G. The development of an in situ method to detect the eIF4E-eIF4G interactions shows that eIF4F complex formation is decreased in tumours that respond to anti-BRAF therapy and increased in resistant metastases compared to tumours before treatment. Strikingly, inhibiting the eIF4F complex, either by blocking the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction or by targeting eIF4A, synergizes with inhibiting BRAF(V600) to kill the cancer cells. eIF4F not only appears to be an indicator of both innate and acquired resistance but also is a promising therapeutic target. Combinations of drugs targeting BRAF (and/or MEK) and eIF4F may overcome most of the resistance mechanisms arising in BRAF(V600)-mutant cancers.

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Carsten Janke (2014 Aug 18)

The tubulin code: molecular components, readout mechanisms, and functions.

The Journal of cell biology : 461-72 : DOI : 10.1083/jcb.201406055 En savoir plus
Résumé

Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments that are dynamically assembled from α/β-tubulin heterodimers. The primary sequence and structure of the tubulin proteins and, consequently, the properties and architecture of microtubules are highly conserved in eukaryotes. Despite this conservation, tubulin is subject to heterogeneity that is generated in two ways: by the expression of different tubulin isotypes and by posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Identifying the mechanisms that generate and control tubulin heterogeneity and how this heterogeneity affects microtubule function are long-standing goals in the field. Recent work on tubulin PTMs has shed light on how these modifications could contribute to a « tubulin code » that coordinates the complex functions of microtubules in cells.

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