Publications de l’unité
Année de publication : 2018
A glycoporphyrin story: from chemistry to PDT treatment of cancer mouse models.Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology : 17 : 1599-1611 : DOI : 10.1039/c8pp00123e En savoir plus
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents a non-toxic and non-mutagenic antitumor therapy. The photosensitizer’s (PS) chemo-physical properties are essential for the therapy, being responsible for the biological effects induced in the targeted tissues. In this study, we present the synthesis and development of some glycoconjugated porphyrins based on lectin-type receptor interaction. They were tested in vitro for finally choosing the most effective chemical structure for an optimum antitumor outcome. The most effective photosensitizer is substituted by three diethylene glycol α-D-mannosyl groups. In vivo studies allow firstly the determination of some characteristics of the biological processes triggered by the initial photochemical activation. Secondly, they make it possible to improve the therapeutic protocol in the function of the structural architecture of the targeted tumor tissue.Replier
Experimental set-up for FLASH proton irradiation of small animals using a clinical systemInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics : 102 : 619-626 : DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.06.403 En savoir plus
Recent in vivo investigations have shown that short pulses (FLASH) of electrons are less harmful to healthy tissues, but just as efficient as conventional dose-rate radiation to inhibit tumor growth. In view of the potential clinical value of FLASH and the availability of modern proton therapy infrastructures to achieve this goal, we herein describe a series of technological developments required to investigate the biology of FLASH irradiation, using a commercially available clinical proton therapy system.
Methods and materials
Numerical simulations and experimental dosimetric characterization of a modified clinical proton beamline, upstream from the isocenter were performed with Monte Carlo toolkit and different detectors. A single scattering system was optimized together with a ridge filter and a high current monitoring system. In addition, a submillimetric set-up protocol based on image-guidance using a digital camera and an animal positioning system was also developed.
The dosimetric properties of the resulting beam and monitoring system were characterized: linearity with dose rate and homogeneity for a 12×12 mm2 field size were assessed. Dose rates exceeding 40 Gy/s at energies between 138 and 198 MeV were obtained, enabling uniform irradiation for radiobiology investigations on small animals in a modified clinical proton beam line.
This approach will enable us to conduct FLASH proton therapy experiments on small animals, specifically for mouse lung irradiation. Dose rates exceeding 40 Gy/s were achieved, which was not possible with the conventional clinical mode of the existing beamline.
Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and cellular imaging of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine derivatives as potent and selective TAM inhibitors.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry : 26 : 5510-5530 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bmc.2018.09.031 En savoir plus
The TAM kinase family arises as a new effective and attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy, autoimmune and viral diseases. A series of 2,6-disubstituted imidazo[4,5-b]pyridines were designed, synthesized and identified as highly potent TAM inhibitors. Despite remarkable structural similarities within the TAM family, compounds 28 and 25 demonstrated high activity and selectivity in vitro against AXL and MER, with IC value of 0.77 nM and 9 nM respectively and a 120- to 900-fold selectivity. We also observed an unexpected nuclear localization for compound 10Bb, thanks to nanoSIMS technology, which could be correlated to the absence of cytotoxicity on three different cancer cell lines being sensitive to TAM inhibition.Replier
Probing of G-Quadruplex Structures via Ligand-Sensitized Photochemical Reactions in BrU-Substituted DNA.Scientific Reports : 8 : 15814 : DOI : 10.1038/s41598-018-34141-z En savoir plus
We studied photochemical reactions of BrU-substituted G-quadruplex (G4) DNA substrates with two pyrene-substituted polyazamacrocyclic ligands, M-1PY and M-2PY. Both ligands bind to and stabilize G4-DNA structures without altering their folding topology, as demonstrated by FRET-melting experiments, fluorimetric titrations and CD spectroscopy. Notably, the bis-pyrene derivative (M-2PY) behaves as a significantly more affine and selective G4 ligand, compared with its mono-pyrene counterpart (M-1PY) and control compounds. Upon short UVA irradiation (365 nm) both ligands, in particular M-2PY, efficiently sensitize photoreactions at BrU residues incorporated in G4 structures and give rise to two kinds of photoproducts, namely DNA strand cleavage and covalent ligand-DNA photoadducts. Remarkably, the photoinduced strand cleavage is observed exclusively with G4 structures presenting BrU residues in lateral or diagonal loops, but not with parallel G4-DNA structures presenting only propeller loops. In contrast, the formation of fluorescent photoadducts is observed with all BrU-substituted G4-DNA substrates, with M-2PY giving significantly higher yields (up to 27%) than M-1PY. Both ligand-sensitized photoreactions are specific to BrU-modified G4-DNA structures with respect to double-stranded or stem-loop substrates. Thus, ligand-sensitized photoreactions with BrU-substituted G4-DNA may be exploited (i) as a photochemical probe, allowing « photofootprinting » of G4 folding topologies in vitro and (ii) for covalent trapping of G4 structures as photoadducts with pyrene-substituted ligands.Replier
Oxadiazole/Pyridine-Based Ligands: A Structural Tuning for Enhancing G-Quadruplex Binding.Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) : 23 : 2162 : DOI : 10.3390/molecules23092162 En savoir plus
Non-macrocyclic heteroaryls represent a valuable class of ligands for nucleic acid recognition. In this regard, non-macrocyclic pyridyl polyoxazoles and polyoxadiazoles were recently identified as selective G-quadruplex stabilizing compounds with high cytotoxicity and promising anticancer activity. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a new family of heteroaryls containing oxadiazole and pyridine moieties targeting DNA G-quadruplexes. To perform a structure⁻activity analysis identifying determinants of activity and selectivity, we followed a convergent synthetic pathway to modulate the nature and number of the heterocycles (1,3-oxazole vs. 1,2,4-oxadiazole and pyridine vs. benzene). Each ligand was evaluated towards secondary nucleic acid structures, which have been chosen as a prototype to mimic cancer-associated G-quadruplex structures (e.g., the human telomeric sequence, c-myc and c-kit promoters). Interestingly, heptapyridyl-oxadiazole compounds showed preferential binding towards the telomeric sequence (22AG) in competitive conditions vs. duplex DNA. In addition, G4-FID assays suggest a different binding mode from the classical stacking on the external G-quartet. Additionally, CD titrations in the presence of the two most promising compounds for affinity, TOxAzaPy and TOxAzaPhen, display a structural transition of 22AG in K-rich buffer. This investigation suggests that the pyridyl-oxadiazole motif is a promising recognition element for G-quadruplexes, combining seven heteroaryls in a single binding unit.Replier
Topology-Selective Fluorescent « Light-Up » Probes for G-Quadruplex DNA Based on Photoinduced Electron Transfer.Chemistry - A European Journal : 24 : 12638-12651 : DOI : 10.1002/chem.201801701 En savoir plus
Six novel probes were prepared by covalent attachment of a G4-DNA ligand (PDC) to various coumarin or pyrene fluorophores. In the absence of DNA, the fluorescence of all probes is quenched due to intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) evidenced by photophysical and electrochemical studies, molecular modeling and DFT calculations. All probes demonstrate similarly high thermal stabilization of various G4-DNA substrates belonging to different folding topologies, as assessed by fluorescence melting experiments; however, their fluorimetric response is strongly heterogeneous with respect to structures of the probes and G4-DNA targets. Thus, the probes containing the 7-diethylaminocoumarin fluorophore demonstrate significant fluorescence enhancement in the presence of G4-DNA, with the strongest « light-up » response (20- to 180-fold) observed for antiparallel G4 structures as well as for hybrid G4 structures, formed by the variants of human telomeric sequence and capable of a conformation change to the antiparallel isoform. These results shed light on the influence of the linker and electronic properties of fluorophores on the efficiency of G4-DNA « light-up » probes operating via PET.Replier
Retinoblastoma membrane models and their interactions with porphyrin photosensitisers: An infrared microspectroscopy study.Chemistry and physics of lipids : 215 : 34-45 : DOI : 10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2018.07.003 En savoir plus
Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy was used to highlight the interactions between two photosensitisers (PS) of different geometries, TPPmOH4 and a glycoconjugated analogous, TPPDegMan, and lipid bilayers modelling retinoblastoma cell membranes. Retinoblastoma is a rare disease occurring in young infants, for whom conservative treatments may present harmful side-effects. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is expected to induce less side-effects, as the photosensitiser is only activated when the tumour is illuminated.
Since efficiency of the treatment relies on photosensitiser penetration in cancer cells, bilayers with three lipid compositions – pure SOPC, SOPC/SOPE/SOPS/Chol (56:23:11:10) and SOPC/SOPE/SOPS/Chol/CL (42:32:9:8:6) – were used as plasma and mitochondria model membranes. FTIR spectra showed that the interaction of the PSs with the lipid bilayers impacted the lipid organization of the latter, causing significant spectral variations. Both studied photosensitisers inserted at the level of lipid hydrophobic chains, increasing chain fluidity and disorder. This was confirmed by surface pressure measurements. Photosensitisers – TPPmOH4 more than TPPDegMan – also interacted with the polar region of the bilayer, forming hydrogen bonds with phosphate groups that induced major shifts of phosphate absorption bands. This difference in PS interaction with moieties in the polar region was more pronounced with the models with complex lipid composition.Replier
Platinum Complexes Can Bind to Telomeres by Coordination.International journal of molecular sciences : 19 : 1951 : DOI : 10.3390/ijms19071951 En savoir plus
It is suggested that several compounds, including G-quadruplex ligands, can target telomeres, inducing their uncapping and, ultimately, cell death. However, it has never been demonstrated whether such ligands can bind directly and quantitatively to telomeres. Here, we employed the property of platinum and platinum-G-quadruplex complexes to target G-rich sequences to investigate and quantify their covalent binding to telomeres. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, surprisingly, we found that, in cellulo, in the presence of cisplatin, a di-functional platinum complex, telomeric DNA was platinated 13-times less than genomic DNA in cellulo, as compared to in vitro data. On the contrary, the amount of mono-functional platinum complexes (Pt-ttpy and Pt-tpy) bound either to telomeric or to genomic DNA was similar and occurred in a G-quadruplex independent-manner. Importantly, the quantification revealed that the low level of cisplatin bound to telomeric DNA could not be the direct physical cause of TRF2 displacement from telomeres. Altogether, our data suggest that platinum complexes can affect telomeres both directly and indirectly.Replier
Genome-wide Control of Heterochromatin Replication by the Telomere Capping Protein TRF2Molecular cell : 70 : 449-461.e5 : DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2018.03.036 En savoir plus
Hard-to-replicate regions of chromosomes (e.g., pericentromeres, centromeres, and telomeres) impede replication fork progression, eventually leading, in the event of replication stress, to chromosome fragility, aging, and cancer. Our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the stability of these regions is essentially limited to telomeres, where fragility is counteracted by the shelterin proteins. Here we show that the shelterin subunit TRF2 ensures progression of the replication fork through pericentromeric heterochromatin, but not centromeric chromatin. In a process involving its N-terminal basic domain, TRF2 binds to pericentromeric Satellite III sequences during S phase, allowing the recruitment of the G-quadruplex-resolving helicase RTEL1 to facilitate fork progression. We also show that TRF2 is required for the stability of other heterochromatic regions localized throughout the genome, paving the way for future research on heterochromatic replication and its relationship with aging and cancer.Replier
Oxazole dyes with potential for photoluminescence bioprobes: A two-Photon absorption studyThe Journal of Physical Chemistry C : 122 : 10526-10534 : DOI : 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b01904 En savoir plus
In this work, six π-conjugated oxazole compounds dissolved in dichloromethane (DCM) were characterized with linear and nonlinear optical measurements. Z-Scan with femtosecond laser pulses was employed to determine the two-photon absorption (TPA) spectra. Other photophysical parameters, such as: absorbance, solvatochromism, lifetime fluorescence and fluorescence anisotropy were evaluated with linear optical techniques. The experimental TPA cross-section spectra were adjusted by Sum-Over-States (SOS) model, in which important parameters such as transition dipole moments and broadening parameters were determined. In order to better understand the TPA spectra of the oxazole compounds, quantum-chemical calculations using the response function formalism and the DFT level of theory were performed. Using the results provided by the quantum-chemical calculations and the broadening parameters estimated through the application of the SOS model, the TPA spectra were simulated by the superposition (summation) of individual homogeneous Lorentzian absorption profiles.Replier
Iterative Variance Stabilizing Transformation Denoising of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Images Applied to Retinoblastoma.Ophthalmic research : 59 : 164-169 : DOI : 10.1159/000486283 En savoir plus
BACKGROUND: Due to the presence of speckle Poisson noise, the interpretation of spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images frequently requires the use of data averaging to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. This implies long acquisition times and requires patient sedation in some cases. Iterative variance stabilizing transformation (VST) is a possible approach by which to remove speckle Poisson noise on single images.
METHODS: We used SD-OCT images of human and murine (LH Beta-Tag mouse model) retinas with and without retinoblastoma acquired with 2 different imaging devices (Bioptigen and Micron IV). These images were processed using a denoising workflow implemented in Matlab.
RESULTS: We demonstrated the presence of speckle Poisson noise, which can be removed by a VST-based approach. This approach is robust as it works in all used imaging devices and in both human and mouse retinas, independently of the tumor status. The implemented algorithm is freely available from the authors on demand.
CONCLUSIONS: On a single denoised image, the proposed method provides results similar to those expected from the SD-OCT averaging. Because of the friendly user interface, it can be easily used by clinicians and researchers in ophthalmology.Replier
TWJ-Screen: an isothermal screening assay to assess ligand/DNA junction interactions in vitroNucleic Acids Research : 46 : e16 : DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkx1118 En savoir plus
The quest for chemicals able to operate at selected genomic loci in a spatiotemporally controlled manner is desirable to create manageable DNA damages. Mounting evidence now shows that alternative DNA structures, including G-quadruplexes and branched DNA (or DNA junctions), might hamper proper progression of replication fork, thus triggering DNA damages and genomic instability. Therefore, small molecules that stabilize these DNA structures are currently scrutinized as a promising way to create genomic defects that cannot be dealt with properly by cancer cells. While much emphasis has been recently given to G-quadruplexes and related ligands, we report herein on three-way DNA junctions (TWJ) and related ligands. We first highlight the biological implications of TWJ and their strategic relevance as triggers for replicative stress. Then, we describe a new in vitro high-throughput screening assay, TWJ-Screen, which allows for identifying TWJ ligands with both high affinity and selectivity for TWJ over other DNA structures (duplexes and quadruplexes), in a convenient and unbiased manner as demonstrated by the screening of a library of 25 compounds from different chemical families. TWJ-Screen thus represents a reliable mean to uncover molecular tools able to foster replicative stress through an innovative approach, thus providing new strategic opportunities to combat cancers.Replier
Amphiphilic Glycoconjugated Porphyrin Heterodimers as Two-Photon Excitable Photosensitizers: Design, Synthesis, Photophysical and Photobiological StudiesChemistrySelect : 3 : 1887-1897 : DOI : 10.1002/slct.201703013 En savoir plus
A new family of amphiphilic glycoconjugated porphyrin dimers usable in two-photon photodynamic therapy was designed, prepared and characterized. The physicochemical and biological data were presented and discussed. Their two-photon absorption cross section was determined, revealing quite good performances of the compounds (δ ≈ 300 GM at 880 nm for 2 and 3 and δ ≈ 1000 GM at 840 nm for 5 and 6). Despite their promising photophysical properties, porphyrin dimers are penalized by their low solubility and an insufficient penetration into tumour cells. Incorporation into nanocarriers such as lipid vesicles could be profitable, provided that the positioning and degree of freedom of the saccharide moieties are optimal to target the receptors of the cells of interest.Replier
Aminocarbonylation of N-Containing Heterocycles with Aromatic Amines Using Mo(CO)6Synthesis : 50 : 1521-1526 : DOI : 10.1055/s-0037-1609152 En savoir plus
We describe herein the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of nitrogen-containing heterocycles with aniline derivatives using molybdenum hexacarbonyl as a CO solid source, expanding the scope of the limited examples. This method is compatible with a variety of substitutions on the aniline moiety. The simple reaction conditions include easily available Pd(dppf)Cl2 catalyst, DBU as base in DMF at 120 °C for 3 hours in sealed tube thereby leading to the isolation of 21 compounds with yields ranging from 18 to 82%. We also show that double aminocarbonylation reactions are possible in satisfactory yields regarding both coupling partners.Replier
Mitochondria-targeted cationic porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrids for enhanced two-photon photodynamic therapyBioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry : 26 : 107-118 : DOI : 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.11.024 En savoir plus
The proof of concept for two-photon activated photodynamic therapy has already been achieved for cancer treatment but the efficiency of this approach still heavily relies on the availability of photosensitizers combining high two-photon absorption and biocompatibility. In this line we recently reported on a series of porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrids which exhibit high singlet oxygen production quantum yield as well as high two-photon absorption cross-sections but with a very poor cellular internalization. We present herein new photosensitizers of the same porphyrin-triphenylamine hybrid series but bearing cationic charges which led to strongly enhanced water solubility and thus cellular penetration. In addition the new compounds have been found localized in mitochondria that are preferential target organelles for photodynamic therapy. Altogether the strongly improved properties of the new series combined with their specific mitochondrial localization lead to a significantly enhanced two-photon activated photodynamic therapy efficiency.Replier