Charged particle minibeam radiation therapy is a novel therapeutic strategy aiming at reducing the normal tissue complication probability by combining the normal tissue sparing of submillimetric, spatially fractionated beams with the improved dose deposition of ions. This may allow a safe dose escalation in the tumor and other targets. In particular, proton minibeam radiation therapy has already proven a remarkable increase of the therapeutic index for high-grade gliomas in animal experiments. The reduced multiple Coulomb scattering and nuclear fragmentation of helium ions compared to protons and heavier ions, respectively, make them a good candidate for minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT). The purpose of the present work was to perform a comprehensive dosimetric comparison between proton and helium MBRT (pMBRT and HeMBRT).