Information was sought on the comparative pathogenicity of four North American strains (isolates) of Aleutian disease virus for royal pastel (a non-Aleutian genotype) and sapphire (an Aleutian genotype) mink. The four strains (Utah-1, Ontario [Canada], Montana, and Pullman [Washington]), all of mink origin, were inoculated intraperitoneally and intranasally in serial 10-fold dilutions. As indicated by the appearance of specific antibody (counterimmunoelectrophoresis test), all strains readily infected both color phases of mink, and all strains were equally pathogenic for sapphire mink. Not all strains, however, regularly caused Aleutian disease in pastel mink. Infection of pastel mink with the Utah-1 strain invariably led to fatal disease. Infection with the Ontario strain caused fatal disease nearly as often. The Pullman strain, by contrast, almost never caused disease in infected pastel mink. The pathogenicity of the Montana strain for this color phase was between these extremes. These findings emphasize the need to distinguish between infection and disease when mink are exposed to Aleutian disease virus. The distinction has important implications for understanding the natural history of Aleutian disease virus infection in ranch mink.
Epiphora secondary to canalicular obstruction has been a perplexing problem most often treated with Jones’ tube bypass surgery, which necessitates a permanent prosthesis and long-term follow-up. There are certain cases in which these problems may be avoided by using an alternative surgical approach. The canaliculodacryocystorhinostomy, a microsurgery technique, reconstructs rather than bypasses the physiological system. We recommend this procedure in all cases of lateral common canalicular obstruction and upper and lower canalicular obstruction with greater than 8 mm of patency.
The purpose of this paper is to propose the necessary sampling techniques for estimating a global parameter defined in a solid opaque specimen (e.g. the total volume of mitochondria in a given liver, the total capillary surface area in a given lung, etc). The geometry of the specimen often suggests a multi-level or cascade sampling design at different magnifications, whereby the object phase at one level becomes the reference phase in the next level. The final parameter is then estimated as the product of the intermediate ratios with the volume of the specimen, which is estimated independently. Each level can be regarded as an independent sampling design; a given stereological project may be planned in terms of one or more of these designs. Our development is a blend of practical experience and recent theoretical advances on sampling for stereology with well-known sampling techniques previously developed with different purposes in mind.
The role of Pavlovian conditioning in tolerance to the narcotizing effect of a high dose of morphine in the rat was examined. Initially, two groups received nine injections of morphine (40 mg/kg), and two groups received nine injections of saline. One group administered each substance was injected in one of two distinctive environments: the animal colony or a distinctive room. Subsequently, rats in all groups received five morphine injections in the distinctive room. Analyses of videotape records of postinjection behavior indicated that rats tested in the presence of the usual predrug cues were more tolerant to the narcotizing effect of morphine than rats tested with cues different from those previously associated with morphine. In addition, rats tested with the usual predrug cues exhibited more anticipatory « hyperexcitable » behavior than rats tested in the absence of the usual predrug cues. These results provide further evidence that compensatory pharmacological conditional responses partially mediate tolerance, and they suggest that these drug-anticipatory responses contribute to so-called « withdrawal symptoms. »
While precise tuning of gene expression levels is critical for most developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which the transcriptional output of dosage-sensitive molecules is established or modulated by the environment remain poorly understood. Here, we provide a mechanistic framework for how the conserved transcription factor BLMP-1/Blimp1 operates as a pioneer factor to decompact chromatin near its target loci hours before transcriptional activation and by doing so, regulates both the duration and amplitude of subsequent target gene transcription. This priming mechanism is genetically separable from the mechanisms that establish the timing of transcriptional induction and functions to canalize aspects of cell-fate specification, animal size regulation, and molting. A key feature of the BLMP-1-dependent transcriptional priming mechanism is that chromatin decompaction is initially established during embryogenesis and maintained throughout larval development by nutrient sensing. This anticipatory mechanism integrates transcriptional output with environmental conditions and is essential for resuming normal temporal patterning after animals exit nutrient-mediated developmental arrests.
During prophase of the first meiotic division, cells deliberately break their DNA. These DNA breaks are repaired by homologous recombination, which facilitates proper chromosome segregation and enables the reciprocal exchange of DNA segments between homologous chromosomes. A pathway that depends on the MLH1-MLH3 (MutLγ) nuclease has been implicated in the biased processing of meiotic recombination intermediates into crossovers by an unknown mechanism. Here we have biochemically reconstituted key elements of this pro-crossover pathway. We show that human MSH4-MSH5 (MutSγ), which supports crossing over, binds branched recombination intermediates and associates with MutLγ, stabilizing the ensemble at joint molecule structures and adjacent double-stranded DNA. MutSγ directly stimulates DNA cleavage by the MutLγ endonuclease. MutLγ activity is further stimulated by EXO1, but only when MutSγ is present. Replication factor C (RFC) and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) are additional components of the nuclease ensemble, thereby triggering crossing-over. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which MutLγ cannot interact with PCNA present defects in forming crossovers. Finally, the MutLγ-MutSγ-EXO1-RFC-PCNA nuclease ensemble preferentially cleaves DNA with Holliday junctions, but shows no canonical resolvase activity. Instead, it probably processes meiotic recombination intermediates by nicking double-stranded DNA adjacent to the junction points. As DNA nicking by MutLγ depends on its co-factors, the asymmetric distribution of MutSγ and RFC-PCNA on meiotic recombination intermediates may drive biased DNA cleavage. This mode of MutLγ nuclease activation might explain crossover-specific processing of Holliday junctions or their precursors in meiotic chromosomes.
Meiotic recombination is triggered by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), catalyzed by the type II topoisomerase-like Spo11 protein. Meiotic DSBs are repaired by homologous recombination, which produces either crossovers or noncrossovers, this decision being linked to the binding of proteins specific of each pathway. Mapping the binding of these proteins along chromosomes in wild type or mutant yeast background is extremely useful to understand how and at which step the decision to repair a DSB with a crossover is taken. It is now possible to obtain highly synchronous yeast meiotic populations, which, combined with appropriate negative controls, enable to detect by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) the transient binding of diverse recombination proteins with high sensitivity and resolution.
A significant proportion of patients with oestrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers (BC) develop resistance to endocrine treatments (ET) and relapse with metastatic disease. Here we perform whole exome sequencing and gene expression analysis of matched primary breast tumours and bone metastasis-derived patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Transcriptomic analyses reveal enrichment of the G2/M checkpoint and up-regulation of Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) in PDX. PLK1 inhibition results in tumour shrinkage in highly proliferating CCND1-driven PDX, including different RB-positive PDX with acquired palbociclib resistance. Mechanistic studies in endocrine resistant cell lines, suggest an ER-independent function of PLK1 in regulating cell proliferation. Finally, in two independent clinical cohorts of ER positive BC, we find a strong association between high expression of PLK1 and a shorter metastases-free survival and poor response to anastrozole. In conclusion, our findings support clinical development of PLK1 inhibitors in patients with advanced CCND1-driven BC, including patients progressing on palbociclib treatment.
For collaboration project with the platform, please contact: email@example.com
For any information regarding CRISPR Screens please contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
Budding yeast septins are essential for cell division and polarity. Septins assemble as
palindromic linear octameric complexes. The function and ultra-structural organization of
septins are finely governed by their molecular polymorphism. In particular, in budding
yeast, the end subunit can stand either as Shs1 or Cdc11. We have dissected, here, for
the first time, the behavior of the Shs1 protomer bound to membranes at nanometer
resolution, in complex with the other septins. Using electron microscopy, we have shown
that on membranes, Shs1 protomers self-assemble into rings, bundles, filaments or twodimensional
gauzes. Using a set of specific mutants we have demonstrated a synergistic
role of both nucleotides and lipids for the organization and oligomerization of budding
yeast septins. Besides, cryo-electron tomography assays show that vesicles are
deformed by the interaction between Shs1 oligomers and lipids. The Shs1–Shs1 interface
is stabilized by the presence of phosphoinositides, allowing the visualization of micrometric
long filaments formed by Shs1 protomers. In addition, molecular modeling experiments
have revealed a potential molecular mechanism regarding the selectivity of septin
subunits for phosphoinositide lipids.
R-loops have both positive and negative impacts on chromosome functions. To identify toxic R-loops in the human genome, here, we map RNA:DNA hybrids, replication stress markers and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells depleted for Topoisomerase I (Top1), an enzyme that relaxes DNA supercoiling and prevents R-loop formation. RNA:DNA hybrids are found at both promoters (TSS) and terminators (TTS) of highly expressed genes. In contrast, the phosphorylation of RPA by ATR is only detected at TTS, which are preferentially replicated in a head-on orientation relative to the direction of transcription. In Top1-depleted cells, DSBs also accumulate at TTS, leading to persistent checkpoint activation, spreading of γ-H2AX on chromatin and global replication fork slowdown. These data indicate that fork pausing at the TTS of highly expressed genes containing R-loops prevents head-on conflicts between replication and transcription and maintains genome integrity in a Top1-dependent manner.
In mammals, the acquisition of the germline from the soma provides the germline with an essential challenge: the need to erase and reset genomic methylation. In the male germline, RNA-directed DNA methylation silences young, active transposable elements. The PIWI protein MIWI2 (PIWIL4) and its associated PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) instruct DNA methylation of transposable elements. piRNAs are proposed to tether MIWI2 to nascent transposable element transcripts; however, the mechanism by which MIWI2 directs the de novo methylation of transposable elements is poorly understood, although central to the immortality of the germline. Here we define the interactome of MIWI2 in mouse fetal gonocytes undergoing de novo genome methylation and identify a previously unknown MIWI2-associated factor, SPOCD1, that is essential for the methylation and silencing of young transposable elements. The loss of Spocd1 in mice results in male-specific infertility but does not affect either piRNA biogenesis or the localization of MIWI2 to the nucleus. SPOCD1 is a nuclear protein whose expression is restricted to the period of de novo genome methylation. It co-purifies in vivo with DNMT3L and DNMT3A, components of the de novo methylation machinery, as well as with constituents of the NURD and BAF chromatin remodelling complexes. We propose a model whereby tethering of MIWI2 to a nascent transposable element transcript recruits repressive chromatin remodelling activities and the de novo methylation apparatus through SPOCD1. In summary, we have identified a previously unrecognized and essential executor of mammalian piRNA-directed DNA methylation.