Cellular EM Mollecular-EM RT Tomography CLEM Cryo-EM Cryo Electron Tomography



Cellular EM Mollecular-EM RT Tomography CLEM Cryo-EM Cryo Electron Tomography

The PIKfyve complex regulates the early melanosome homeostasis required for physiological amyloid

The metabolism of PI(3,5)P2 is regulated by the PIKfyve, VAC14 and FIG4 complex, mutations in which are associated with hypopigmentation in mice. These pigmentation defects indicate a key, but as yet unexplored, physiological relevance of this complex in the biogenesis of melanosomes. Here, we show that PIKfyve activity regulates formation of amyloid matrix composed of PMEL protein within the early endosomes in melanocytes, called stage I melanosomes. PIKfyve activity controls the membrane remodeling of stage I melanosomes, which regulates PMEL abundance, sorting and processing. PIKfyve activity also affects stage I melanosome kiss-and-run interactions with lysosomes, which are required for PMEL amyloidogenesis and the establishment of melanosome identity. Mechanistically, PIKfyve activity promotes both the formation of membrane tubules from stage I melanosomes and their release by modulating endosomal actin branching. Taken together, our data indicate that PIKfyve activity is a key regulator of the melanosomal import-export machinery that fine tunes the formation of functional amyloid fibrils in melanosomes and the maintenance of melanosome identity.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

Correction: The PIKfyve complex regulates the early melanosome homeostasis required for

Corrigendum to « Lysosome related organelles as functional adaptations of the endolysosomal system »,

The post-abscission midbody is an intracellular signaling organelle that regulates cell

Once thought to be a remnant of cell division, the midbody (MB) has recently been shown to have roles beyond its primary function of orchestrating abscission. Despite the emerging roles of post-abscission MBs, how MBs accumulate in the cytoplasm and signal to regulate cellular functions remains unknown. Here, we show that extracellular post-abscission MBs can be internalized by interphase cells, where they reside in the cytoplasm as a membrane-bound signaling structure that we have named the MBsome. We demonstrate that MBsomes stimulate cell proliferation and that MBsome formation is a phagocytosis-like process that depends on a phosphatidylserine/integrin complex, driven by actin-rich membrane protrusions. Finally, we show that MBsomes rely on dynamic actin coats to slow lysosomal degradation and propagate their signaling function. In summary, MBsomes may sometimes serve as intracellular organelles that signal via integrin and EGFR-dependent pathways to promote cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and survival.

Compound Functional Prediction Using Multiple Unrelated Morphological Profiling Assays.

Phenotypic cell-based assays have proven to be efficient at discovering first-in-class therapeutic drugs mainly because they allow for scanning a wide spectrum of possible targets at once. However, despite compelling methodological advances, posterior identification of a compound’s mechanism of action (MOA) has remained difficult and highly refractory to automated analyses. Methods such as the cell painting assay and multiplexing fluorescent dyes to reveal broadly relevant cellular components were recently suggested for MOA prediction. We demonstrated that adding fluorescent dyes to a single assay has limited impact on MOA prediction accuracy, as monitoring only the nuclei stain could reach compelling levels of accuracy. This observation suggested that multiplexed measurements are highly correlated and nuclei stain could possibly reflect the general state of the cell. We then hypothesized that combining unrelated and possibly simple cell-based assays could bring a solution that would be biologically and technically more relevant to predict a drug target than using a single assay multiplexing dyes. We show that such a combination of past screen data could rationally be reused in screening facilities to train an ensemble classifier to predict drug targets and prioritize a possibly large list of unknown compound hits at once.

Domain-invariant features for mechanism of action prediction in a multi-cell-line drug screen.

High-content screening is an important tool in drug discovery and characterization. Often, high-content drug screens are performed on one single-cell line. Yet, a single-cell line cannot be thought of as a perfect disease model. Many diseases feature an important molecular heterogeneity. Consequently, a drug may be effective against one molecular subtype of a disease, but less so against another. To characterize drugs with respect to their effect not only on one cell line but on a panel of cell lines is therefore a promising strategy to streamline the drug discovery process.

Targeting CCR5 trafficking to inhibit HIV-1 infection.

Using a cell-based assay monitoring differential protein transport in the secretory pathway coupled to high-content screening, we have identified three molecules that specifically reduce the delivery of the major co-receptor for HIV-1, CCR5, to the plasma membrane. They have no effect on the closely related receptors CCR1 and CXCR4. These molecules are also potent in primary macrophages as they markedly decrease HIV entry. At the molecular level, two of these molecules inhibit the critical palmitoylation of CCR5 and thereby block CCR5 in the early secretory pathway. Our results open a clear therapeutics avenue based on trafficking control and demonstrate that preventing HIV infection can be performed at the level of its receptor delivery.

BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 Disperse the Golgi Apparatus and Abolish Protein Transport in Human

The steady-state localization of Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes in the Golgi apparatus depends on a balance between anterograde and retrograde transport. Using the Retention Using Selective Hooks (RUSH) assay and high-content screening, we identified small molecules that perturb the localization of Mannosidase II (ManII) used as a model cargo for Golgi resident enzymes. In particular, we found that two compounds known as EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, namely BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 disrupt Golgi integrity and abolish secretory protein transport of diverse cargos, thus inducing brefeldin A-like effects. Interestingly, BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 affect Golgi integrity and transport in human cells but not in rodent cells. The effects of BML-265 are reversible since Golgi integrity and protein transport are quickly restored upon washout of the compounds. BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 do not lead to endosomal tubulation suggesting that, contrary to brefeldin A, they do not target the -Golgi ARF GEF BIG1 and BIG2. They quickly induce COPI dissociation from Golgi membranes suggesting that, in addition to EGFR kinase, the -Golgi ARF GEF GBF1 might also be a target of these molecules. Accordingly, overexpression of GBF1 prevents the effects of BML-265 and Tyrphostin AG1478 on Golgi integrity.

Contractile forces at tricellular contacts modulate epithelial organization and monolayer

Monolayered epithelia are composed of tight cell assemblies that ensure polarized exchanges. EpCAM, an unconventional epithelial-specific cell adhesion molecule, is assumed to modulate epithelial morphogenesis in animal models, but little is known regarding its cellular functions. Inspired by the characterization of cellular defects in a rare EpCAM-related human intestinal disease, we find that the absence of EpCAM in enterocytes results in an aberrant apical domain. In the course of this pathological state, apical translocation towards tricellular contacts (TCs) occurs with striking tight junction belt displacement. These unusual cell organization and intestinal tissue defects are driven by the loss of actomyosin network homoeostasis and contractile activity clustering at TCs, yet is reversed by myosin-II inhibitor treatment. This study reveals that adequate distribution of cortical tension is crucial for individual cell organization, but also for epithelial monolayer maintenance. Our data suggest that EpCAM modulation protects against epithelial dysplasia and stabilizes human tissue architecture.

Spindle pole cohesion requires glycosylation-mediated localization of NuMA.

Glycosylation is critical for the regulation of several cellular processes. One glycosylation pathway, the unusual O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) has been shown to be required for proper mitosis, likely through a subset of proteins that are O-GlcNAcylated during metaphase. As lectins bind glycosylated proteins, we asked if specific lectins interact with mitotic O-GlcNAcylated proteins during metaphase to ensure correct cell division. Galectin-3, a small soluble lectin of the Galectin family, is an excellent candidate, as it has been previously described as a transient centrosomal component in interphase and mitotic epithelial cells. In addition, it has recently been shown to associate with basal bodies in motile cilia, where it stabilizes the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Using an experimental mouse model of chronic kidney disease and human epithelial cell lines, we investigate the role of Galectin-3 in dividing epithelial cells. Here we find that Galectin-3 is essential for metaphase where it associates with NuMA in an O-GlcNAcylation-dependent manner. We provide evidence that the NuMA-Galectin-3 interaction is important for mitotic spindle cohesion and for stable NuMA localization to the spindle pole, thus revealing that Galectin-3 is a novel contributor to epithelial mitotic progress.

Myosin 1b and F-actin are involved in the control of secretory granule biogenesis.

Hormone secretion relies on secretory granules which store hormones in endocrine cells and release them upon cell stimulation. The molecular events leading to hormone sorting and secretory granule formation at the level of the TGN are still elusive. Our proteomic analysis of purified whole secretory granules or secretory granule membranes uncovered their association with the actomyosin components myosin 1b, actin and the actin nucleation complex Arp2/3. We found that myosin 1b controls the formation of secretory granules and the associated regulated secretion in both neuroendocrine cells and chromogranin A-expressing COS7 cells used as a simplified model of induced secretion. We show that F-actin is also involved in secretory granule biogenesis and that myosin 1b cooperates with Arp2/3 to recruit F-actin to the Golgi region where secretory granules bud. These results provide the first evidence that components of the actomyosin complex promote the biogenesis of secretory granules and thereby regulate hormone sorting and secretion.

Nonsmooth Convex Optimization for Structured Illumination Microscopy Image Reconstruction.

In this paper, we propose a new approach for structured illumination microscopy image reconstruction. We first introduce the principles of this imaging modality and describe the forward model. We then propose the minimization of nonsmooth convex objective functions for the recovery of the unknown image. In this context, we investigate two data-fitting terms for Poisson-Gaussian noise and introduce a new patch-based regularization method. This approach is tested against other regularization approaches on a realistic benchmark. Finally, we perform some test experiments on images acquired on two different microscopes.

Cell-Cycle Asynchrony Generates DNA Damage at Mitotic Entry in Polyploid Cells.

Polyploidy arises from the gain of complete chromosome sets [1], and it is known to promote cancer genome evolution. Recent evidence suggests that a large proportion of human tumors experience whole-genome duplications (WGDs), which might favor the generation of highly abnormal karyotypes within a short time frame, rather than in a stepwise manner [2-6]. However, the molecular mechanisms linking whole-genome duplication to genetic instability remain poorly understood. Using repeated cytokinesis failure to induce polyploidization of Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs) (also called neuroblasts [NBs]), we investigated the consequences of polyploidy in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that DNA damage is generated in a subset of nuclei of polyploid NBs during mitosis. Importantly, our observations in flies were confirmed in mouse NSCs (mNSCs) and human cancer cells after acute cytokinesis inhibition. Interestingly, DNA damage occurs in nuclei that were not ready to enter mitosis but were forced to do so when exposed to the mitotic environment of neighboring nuclei within the same cell. Additionally, we found that polyploid cells are cell-cycle asynchronous and forcing cell-cycle synchronization was sufficient to lower the levels of DNA damage generated during mitosis. Overall, this work supports a model in which DNA damage at mitotic entry can generate DNA structural abnormalities that might contribute to the onset of genetic instability.

MTrack: Automated Detection, Tracking, and Analysis of Dynamic Microtubules.

Microtubules are polar, dynamic filaments fundamental to many cellular processes. In vitro reconstitution approaches with purified tubulin are essential to elucidate different aspects of microtubule behavior. To date, deriving data from fluorescence microscopy images by manually creating and analyzing kymographs is still commonplace. Here, we present MTrack, implemented as a plug-in for the open-source platform Fiji, which automatically identifies and tracks dynamic microtubules with sub-pixel resolution using advanced objection recognition. MTrack provides automatic data interpretation yielding relevant parameters of microtubule dynamic instability together with population statistics. The application of our software produces unbiased and comparable quantitative datasets in a fully automated fashion. This helps the experimentalist to achieve higher reproducibility at higher throughput on a user-friendly platform. We use simulated data and real data to benchmark our algorithm and show that it reliably detects, tracks, and analyzes dynamic microtubules and achieves sub-pixel precision even at low signal-to-noise ratios.

SPEN integrates transcriptional and epigenetic control of X-inactivation.

Xist represents a paradigm for the function of long non-coding RNA in epigenetic regulation, although how it mediates X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) remains largely unexplained. Several proteins that bind to Xist RNA have recently been identified, including the transcriptional repressor SPEN, the loss of which has been associated with deficient XCI at multiple loci. Here we show in mice that SPEN is a key orchestrator of XCI in vivo and we elucidate its mechanism of action. We show that SPEN is essential for initiating gene silencing on the X chromosome in preimplantation mouse embryos and in embryonic stem cells. SPEN is dispensable for maintenance of XCI in neural progenitors, although it significantly decreases the expression of genes that escape XCI. We show that SPEN is immediately recruited to the X chromosome upon the upregulation of Xist, and is targeted to enhancers and promoters of active genes. SPEN rapidly disengages from chromatin upon gene silencing, suggesting that active transcription is required to tether SPEN to chromatin. We define the SPOC domain as a major effector of the gene-silencing function of SPEN, and show that tethering SPOC to Xist RNA is sufficient to mediate gene silencing. We identify the protein partners of SPOC, including NCoR/SMRT, the mA RNA methylation machinery, the NuRD complex, RNA polymerase II and factors involved in the regulation of transcription initiation and elongation. We propose that SPEN acts as a molecular integrator for the initiation of XCI, bridging Xist RNA with the transcription machinery-as well as with nucleosome remodellers and histone deacetylases-at active enhancers and promoters.

A novel non-invasive method to measure splenic filtration function in humans.

Dimerization and phosphorylation of Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule are critical for its

Tumor cell migration depends on the interactions of adhesion proteins with the extracellular matrix. Lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) promotes tumor cell migration by binding to laminin α5 chain, a subunit of laminins 511 and 521. Lu/BCAM is a type I transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic domain of 59 (Lu) or 19 (Lu(v13)) amino acids. Here, using an array of techniques, including site-directed mutagenesis, immunoblotting, FRET, and proximity-ligation assays, we show that both Lu and Lu(v13) form homodimers at the cell surface of epithelial cancer cells. We mapped two small–small motifs in the transmembrane domain as potential sites for monomers docking and identified three cysteines in the cytoplasmic domain as being critical for covalently stabilizing dimers. We further found that Lu dimerization and phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain were concomitantly needed to promote cell migration. We conclude that Lu is the critical isoform supporting tumor cell migration on laminin 521 and that the Lu:Lu(v13) ratio at the cell surface may control the balance between cellular firm adhesion and migration.

2-years postdoc position & 3-years PhD position in the team

2-years postdoc position Lambert team

3-years PhD position in the team Lambert team