The brightness study of emissive compounds is one of the fundamental spectroscopic characterizations. In this work, we assessed the brightness values of eight 2,5-disubstituted oxazole dyes derivatives by combining linear and nonlinear spectroscopic parameters. The range of the brightness values obtained is from 0.26 GM to 15.15 GM. The highest value belongs to compound 14 m, which, compared to previously investigated compounds of similar π-conjugation length, is at least two times higher. Brightness values were determined in the spectral region between 700 nm–720 nm, revealing this class of dyes’ potential to be used as photoluminescence bioprobes excited by two-photons.
B lymphocytes capture antigens from the surface of presenting cells by forming an immune synapse. Local secretion of lysosomes, which are guided to the synaptic membrane by centrosome repositioning, can facilitate the extraction of immobilized antigens. However, the molecular basis underlying their delivery to precise domains of the plasma membrane remains elusive. Here we show that microtubule stabilization, triggered by engagement of the B cell receptor, acts as a cue to release centrosome-associated Exo70, which is redistributed to the immune synapse. This process is coupled to the recruitment and activation of GEF-H1, which is required for assembly of the exocyst complex, used to promote tethering and fusion of lysosomes at the immune synapse. B cells silenced for GEF-H1 or Exo70 display defective lysosome secretion, which results in impaired antigen extraction and presentation. Thus, centrosome repositioning coupled to changes in microtubule stability orchestrates the spatial-temporal distribution of the exocyst complex to promote polarized lysosome secretion at the immune synapse.
The invariant chain (CD74) mediates assembly and targeting of MHC class II (MHCII) complexes. In endosomes, CD74 undergoes sequential degradation by different proteases, including cathepsin S (CatS) and the intramembrane protease signal peptide peptidase-like 2a (SPPL2a). In their absence, CD74 N-terminal fragments (NTFs) accumulate. In B cells, such an NTF impairs endosomal trafficking and BCR signal transduction. In mice, this leads to a loss of splenic B cells beyond the transitional stage 1. To gain insight into CD74 determinants and the role of MHCII, we compared B cells from , , and SPPL2a-MHCII double-deficient mice. We assessed differentiation of B cells in bone marrow and spleen and analyzed their endosomal morphology, BCR expression, and signal transduction. We demonstrate that MHCII is dispensable for the B cell phenotype of mice, further supporting a CD74-intrinsic effect. Despite significant vacuolization of endosomal compartments similar to B cells, traditional stage 1 B cells show unimpaired degradation of endocytic cargo, have intact BCR signaling, and do not exhibit any relevant defects in maturation. This could indicate that CD74 NTF-induced structural changes of endosomes are not directly involved in these processes. We further found that the block of CD74 degradation in B cells is incomplete, so that NTF levels are significantly lower than in B cells. This suggests a dose dependency and threshold for the CD74 NTF-associated impairment of B cell signaling and maturation. In addition, different functional properties of the longer, MHCII-bound CD74 NTF could contribute to the milder phenotype of B cells.
Dendritic cells (DC) have the unique ability to present exogenous antigens via the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway to stimulate naive CD8 T cells. In DCs with a non-functional mutation in Unc93b1 (3d mutation), endosomal acidification, phagosomal maturation, antigen degradation, antigen export to the cytosol and the function of the store-operated-Ca-entry regulator STIM1 are impaired. These defects result in compromised antigen cross-presentation and anti-tumor responses in 3d-mutated mice. Here, we show that UNC93B1 interacts with the calcium sensor STIM1 in the endoplasmic reticulum, a critical step for STIM1 oligomerization and activation. Expression of a constitutively active STIM1 mutant, which no longer binds UNC93B1, restores antigen degradation and cross-presentation in 3d-mutated DCs. Furthermore, ablation of STIM1 in mouse and human cells leads to a decrease in cross-presentation. Our data indicate that the UNC93B1 and STIM1 cooperation is important for calcium flux and antigen cross-presentation in DCs.
The BRCA2 tumor suppressor is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor essential for maintaining genome integrity. BRCA2-deficient cells spontaneously accumulate DNA-RNA hybrids, a known source of genome instability. However, the specific role of BRCA2 on these structures remains poorly understood. Here we identified the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 as a BRCA2-interacting protein. DDX5 associates with DNA-RNA hybrids that form in the vicinity of DSBs, and this association is enhanced by BRCA2. Notably, BRCA2 stimulates the DNA-RNA hybrid-unwinding activity of DDX5 helicase. An impaired BRCA2-DDX5 interaction, as observed in cells expressing the breast cancer variant BRCA2-T207A, reduces the association of DDX5 with DNA-RNA hybrids, decreases the number of RPA foci, and alters the kinetics of appearance of RAD51 foci upon irradiation. Our findings are consistent with DNA-RNA hybrids constituting an impediment for the repair of DSBs by homologous recombination and reveal BRCA2 and DDX5 as active players in their removal.
State-of-the-art patient management frequently mandates the investigation of both anatomy and physiology of the patients. Hybrid imaging modalities such as the PET/MRI, PET/CT and SPECT/CT have the ability to provide both structural and functional information of the investigated tissues in a single examination. With the introduction of such advanced hardware fusion, new problems arise such as the exceedingly large amount of multi-modality data that requires novel approaches of how to extract a maximum of clinical information from large sets of multi-dimensional imaging data. Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as one of the leading technologies that has shown promise in facilitating highly integrative analysis of multi-parametric data. Specifically, the usefulness of AI algorithms in the medical imaging field has been heavily investigated in the realms of (1) image acquisition and reconstruction, (2) post-processing and (3) data mining and modelling. Here, we aim to provide an overview of the challenges encountered in hybrid imaging and discuss how AI algorithms can facilitate potential solutions. In addition, we highlight the pitfalls and challenges in using advanced AI algorithms in the context of hybrid imaging and provide suggestions for building robust AI solutions that enable reproducible and transparent research.
Quantitative analysis in MRI is challenging due to variabilities in intensity distributions across patients, acquisitions and scanners and suffers from bias field inhomogeneity. Radiomic studies are impacted by these effects that affect radiomic feature values. This paper describes a dedicated pipeline to increase reproducibility in breast MRI radiomic studies.
We analyzed the prognostic value of a new baseline positron emission tomography (PET) parameter reflecting the spread of the disease, the largest distance between two lesions (Dmax). We tested its complementarity to metabolic tumor volume (MTV) in a large cohort of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients from the REMARC trial (NCT01122472).
Organoids are widely used as a model system to study gut pathophysiology; however, they fail to fully reproduce the complex, multi-component structure of the intestinal wall. We present here a new gut on chip model that allows the co-culture of primary epithelial and stromal cells. The device has the topography and dimensions of the mouse gut and is based on a 3D collagen I scaffold. The scaffold is coated with a thin layer of laminin to mimic the basement membrane. To maintain the scaffold structure while preserving its cytocompatibility, the collagen scaffold was rigidified by threose-based post-polymerization treatment. This treatment being cytocompatible enabled the incorporation of primary intestinal fibroblasts inside the scaffold, reproducing the gut stromal compartment. We observed that mouse organoids, when deposited into crypts, opened up and epithelialized the scaffold, generating a polarized epithelial monolayer. Proper segregation of dividing and differentiated cells along the crypt-villus axis was achieved under these conditions. Finally, we show that the application of fluid shear stress allows the long-term culture of this intestinal epithelium. Our device represents a new biomimetic tool that captures key features of the gut complexity and could be used to study gut pathophysiology.